Brainstorming is an activity used to generate creative ideas. It can be done individually or as a group.Brainstorming should not be used for analysis or decision making.
Brainstorming combines an informal approach to problem-solving with lateral thinking, which is a method for developing new concepts to solve problems by looking at them in innovative ways. Some of these ideas can be built into original, creative solutions to a problem, while others can generate additional ideas.
The rules for brainstorming are as follows:
All ideas are acceptable; focus on quantity, not quality
Everyone suspends judgement until the process is complete
Encourage wild ideas
Every contributor is equally important and every idea has equal worth
Build on the ideas put forward by others – use existing ideas to generate new ideas.
The nominal group technique (NGT) is a group process involving problem identification, solution generation, and decision making.It can be used in groups of many sizes, who want to make their decision quickly, as by a vote, but want everyone’s opinions taken into account (as opposed to traditional voting, where only the largest group is considered). The method of tallying is the difference. First, every member of the group gives their view of the solution, with a short explanation. Then, duplicate solutions are eliminated from the list of all solutions, and the members proceed to rank the solutions, 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and so on.
A Pareto chart, named after Vilfredo Pareto, is a type of chart that contains both bars and a line graph, where individual values are represented in descending order by bars, and the cumulative total is represented by the line.The steps to drawing a Pareto chart are as follows:
Select the category of causes you want to group issues in.
Determine the measure, for example, frequency, cost, time, etc.
Determine the period to collect the data; for example, one cycle, one day, or one week.
Collect the data.
Segregate the data as per their categories.
Draw a bar chart with causes on the x-axis and number of occurrences on the y-axis.
Now draw the bar with the highest number of occurrences at the far-left and label the category.
Repeat the procedure until you complete all identified categories.
The category with the lowest number of defects will be at the far-right.
At the leadership or management level, Pareto charts can be used at the start of a new round of quality improvement to figure out what business problems are responsible for the most complaints or losses, and dedicate improvement resources to those. Collecting and examining data like that can often result in surprises and upend an organization’s “conventional wisdom.”
A fishbone diagram, also called a cause and effect diagram or Ishikawa diagram, is a visualization tool for categorizing the potential causes of a problem in order to identify its root causes.
The technique uses graphical means to relate the causes of a problem to the problem itself, in other words, to determine cause and effect. The diagram focuses on the causes rather than the effect. Because there may be a number of causes for a particular problem, this technique helps us to identify the root cause of the problem in a structured and uncomplicated manner. It also helps us to work on each cause prior to finding the root cause.
Graphical representation of the sequence of steps or tasks (workflow) constituting a process, from raw materials through to the finished product. It serves as a tool for examining the process in detail to identify areas of possible improvements. Also called process map.
Operation: to change the physical or chemical characteristics of the material.
Inspection: to check the quality or the quantity of the material.
Move: transporting the material from one place to another.
Delay: when material cannot go to the next activity.
Storage: when the material is kept in a safe location.
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