Changes In Cropping Pattern


Changes  in  cropping  pattern

Cropping pattern means the proportion of area

under various  crops  at  a  point of  time or  yearly

sequence  and  spatial  arrangement  of crops  and

Changes  in  cropping  pattern

Cropping pattern means the proportion of area

under various  crops  at  a  point of  time or  yearly

sequence  and  spatial  arrangement  of crops  and

Changes  in  cropping  pattern

Cropping pattern means the proportion of area

under various  crops  at  a  point of  time or  yearly

sequence  and  spatial  arrangement  of crops  and

Changes  in  cropping  pattern

Cropping pattern means the proportion of area

under various  crops  at  a  point of  time or  yearly

sequence  and  spatial  arrangement  of crops  and

ls  and tube  wells

and  drought  followed  by  drought,  farmers  ar


Land Utilization

 The percent share of the different segments of land use of the total geographical area of the state: 162.97 lakh hectares is as follows:

  • Net area sown 37.29% Forest 22.63 %
  • Current fallow lands 9.18%
  • Land put non-agricultural uses 12.57%
  • Barren and uncultivable land 8.26%
  • Other fallow, cultivable waste lands 7.81%
  • Remaining land 2.26%

The Land utilisation particulars from 2008-09 to 2016- 17 are given in the Annexure 5.1 and district wise land utilisation particulars during 2016-17 are given in Annexure 5.2.The following


Soil Types

  • There are various types of soils and the formation of a soil is primarily influenced by major factors – climate, altitude and composition of bedrock etc. Disproportion in the distribution of rainfall in the country and excessive heat contribute special characters to the soils. Most of soils in the State are made up of a combination of three basic types, namely, Sand, silt, and clay. Category wise soils are given in Annexure 5.3. Of the 22 categories of soils adding to the total geographical area of the state, six types are predominant and together account for over 88% of the area.


Land Holdings

  • The data on land holdings is being collected since 1970- 71 through a quinquennial census of land holdings, the latest available data relates to 2010-11. The average size of land holdings in the state has marginally declined to 1.06 hectares during 2010-11 from 1.13 hectares in 2005-06. The number of holdings has increased from 72.16 lakh in 2005- 06 to 76.21 lakh in 2010-11


Comparative picture of Area and Production under food grains and paddy

  • The area as well as production of food grains for the year 2017-18 are expected to show an increase in comparison with the previous year achievements viz, 2016-17. However, a marginal decline of 0.47 lk ha. in area took place in case of Paddy crop during 2017-18.

Expansion of Area under Paddy and Major millets during 2017-18 lead to an increase of 5.65% in the production of Food grains.


Cropping Intensity

  • The cropping intensity, the ratio of gross cropped area to net cropped area, one of the indicators of assessing effi ciency of agriculture sector has not undergone much change in the recent past. The cropping intensity for the year 2016-17 has marginally improved to 1.25 from 1.24 last year. This to be further stepped up to 1.50 by ensuring adequate irrigation and changing cropping pattern. Punjab and Haryana with cropping intensities respectively at 1.91 at 1.81 stand as National benchmarks.


Gross and Net Area Irrigated

  • The gross area irrigated in the State increased to 35.82 lakh hectares in 2016-17 from 35.47 lakh hectares in 2015- 16. The net area irrigated in the state stands at 27.19 lakh hectares in 2016-17.

Agriculture Extension Programmes – Mission based approach

  • In line with the Government of India’s commitment to double the farm income once in fi ve years, the state government has started implementing double digit inclusive growth strategy with strategic interventions in agriculture sector contributing to higher Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP). The government is working in a mission mode to attain sustainable agricultural production duly competing with the best performing states in the country with minimum cultivation cost, targeting higher net returns to farmer.
  • The Government has got clear vision to increase the food grain productivity from 2641Kgs/Ha. to 4409 Kgs/Ha. marching towards achieving Sustainable Development Goals 2029. It is aimed to transform the Agriculture sector in the state into a dynamic, high growth sector. Strategies have been devised to double the contribution of Agriculture to the GSDP to Rs.60000 Cr. by 2021-22 from the current level of Rs.31961 Cr (constant prices 2015-16).

 Key strategies to realize the vision:

  • Modernization of market yards and Rythu Bazaar shall signifi cantly improve the income of farmers.
  • Linking to e-NAM to improve farmers’ income
  • Involvement of marginal and small farmers in crop diversifi cation and food security are the important aspects to be addressed in accelerating crop diversifi cation in the state
  • Promoting poly crop system in the rain fed areas of the state to ensure sustainable income to the farmer in the event of drought situations also which is a common phenomenon of Rayalaseema districts of the state.
  • Increasing cropping intensity through seasonal discipline especially in Godavari Delta areas where the farmers can take three crops in a year (Paddy – Paddy – Pulse).
  • Promotion of Integrated Crop Management through INM, IPM, effi cient water management.
  • Promotion of Green Manure crops on a Mission mode.
  • Involvement of ANGRAU and other National and International Institutes


through  sectoral  approach and there  is  a  need  to

apply modern  science and  technology to  enhance

productivity on a  sustainable basis.  There should

be a suitable institutional mechanism for scientific

management, conservation and d

Shifts in Cropping Pattern

  • In 1970-71, the major crop grown in the state was rice. It covered 25.30 per cent of the gross cropped area of 13.04 M ha. The next major crop was sorghum (19.44%) followed by groundnut (11.58 %), small millets (6.59 %), pearl millet (4.25 %), green gram 3.66 (%) and horse gram (3.22 %). The area covered by finger millet, cotton, spices and fruits and vegetables each ranged between 2 and 3 per cent, while the area covered by maize, red gram, black gram, sesamum, tobacco and chillies ranged between 1 and 2 per cent only. The rest of the crops, viz. bengal gram, other pulses, sugarcane and other oilseeds covered less than 1 per cent each of the gross cropped area.


  • While the changes in the cropping pattern in the state during the period 1970-71 to 2004-2005, position of the most dominant crop, rice, remained more or less the same.In fact, the proportion of rice area in gross cropped area kept increasing reaching a peak of 31.27 per cent in 2000-2001. However, there was a drastic fall thereafter and in 2004-05 it fell to 25.17 per cent. The area under total cereals and millets also declined drastically, the only exception being maize. The proportion of area under maize increased from 1.95 per cent in 1970-71 to 2.55 per cent in 1980-81, 2.36 per cent in 1990-91, 3.67 per cent in 2000-2001 and 5.39 per cent in 2004-05. Similarly, a significant area increases in the prominence of pulses, especially, the bengal gram (chickpea), red gram and green gram except horse gram. The area under oilseeds was subjected to wide fluctuations mainly on account of groundnut. Though, a substantial shift was perceived in favour of the commercial crops, particularly, sugarcane, whereas, the area under other commercial crops, viz. chillies, tobacco and cotton was noted instable. An impeccable change in favour of the cultivation of spice crops and drugs and narcotics was witnessed in the state. Remarkably, the proportion of area under high-value crops (fruits and vegetables) increased from 2.7 per cent in 1970-71 to 3.8 per cent in 1990-91 but after 1990s, it uplifted rapidly reaching 6.06 per cent in 2000-01 and 6.90 per cent in 2004-05.
  • The shifts in cropping pattern differed significantly across the three regions, viz. coastal Andhra, Rayalaseema and Telangana (Figs. 2 to 4). In 1970-71, the predominant crop in the coastal Andhra region was rice. The proportion of area under rice declined from 43.86 per cent in 1970-71 to 39.59 per cent in 2004-05. The area under coarse cereals also declined drastically. On the other side, a significant shift was observed in favour of pulses: green gram, horse gram, black gram); commercial crops (sugarcane, cotton, chillies); and high-value crops (fruits and vegetables).


  • Until 1980s sorghum was the main crop in the Telangana region and area under this was somehow increased from 29.35 per cent in 1970- 71 and 29.47 per cent 1980-81, but, after that sorghum area was declined drastically to 17.47 per cent in 1990-91 and further to 9.73 per cent in 2004-05. The area under commercial crop cotton has exhibited sharply increasing from 1.85 per cent in 1970-71 to 13.98 per cent in 2004-05. The cropping pattern changes in favour of chillies, spice crops and fruits and vegetables was witnessed in all the periods.


  • Remarkably, significant area gains were identified in the crops like maize, bengal gram (chickpea) and red gram in all the three regions of the state. For instance, in 2000-01 onwards, the expansion of area under maize and bengal gram (chickpea) crop noticed increasing growth due to the adoption of single cross hybrids. Particularly, there are eight districts includes Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Mahbubnagar, Medak and Khammam in Telangana region and Guntur and West Godavari districts in Coastal Andhra jointly contributes above than 80 per cent in the total maize production in the state. Although, the growth of maize yield is higher in a resource poor district in Mahbubnagar, which accounts 33 percent followed by the Guntur district during TE 2000-01 to 2004-05. Furthermore, in these two districts the area under maize crop were expanded 7000 ha in every year from the past 5 years


  • On the other hand, black gram, green gram, red gram and bengal gram (chickpea) are the principal pulse crops, whereas, 70 per cent of chickpea production were predominantly grown in Kurnool, Prakasam and Anantapur districts in the state. Moreover, it is emerging as a commercial crop in black cotton soil of Andhra Pradesh, particularly, because of higher returns and stability in productivity. Besides, a low risk crop and its suitable in a diverse dry land agroclimatic conditions.

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