Water Pollution

  Addition of certain substances to the water such as organic, inorganic, biological, radiological, heat, which degrades the quality of water so that it becomes unfit for use. Putrescibility is the process of decomposition of organic matter present in water by microorganisms using oxygen. Water having DO (dissolved oxygen)  content below 8.0 mg/L may be … Read more

Air Pollution

  aggravated because of four developments: Increasing traffic, growing cities, rapid economic development, and industrialization contamination of air by the discharge of harmful substances   Major air pollutants and their sources Carbon monoxide (CO) It is a colourless, odourless gas that is produced by the incomplete burning of carbon – based fuels including petrol, diesel, … Read more

Environment Pollution: An Introduction

Environment Pollution is  defined as ‘an addition or excessive addition of certain materials to the physical environment (water, air and lands), making it less fit or unfit for life’. Pollutants are the materials or factors, which cause adverse effect on the natural quality of any component of the environment. Classifications According to the form in … Read more

Key Initiatives To Protect Marine And Coastal Environments

    Coastal Ocean Monitoring and Prediction System (COMAPS) Being implemented from 1991. Assesses the health of coastal waters and facilitates management of pollution-related issues Programme was restructured and modified in 2000 2001 to include pollution monitoring; liaison, regulation and legislation; and consultancy services. 2.Land Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ)   Launched in … Read more

Coral Reef and Coral Bleaching

  Coral is actually a living animal. has a symbiotic relationship (each gives something to the other and gets something back in return) With ‘zooxanthellae’ microscopic algae which live on coral [i.e. instead of living on the sea  floor, the algae lives up on the coral which is closer to the ocean surface and so … Read more


  Mangroves are the characteristic littoral plant formation of tropical and subtropical sheltered coastlines. are trees and bushes growing below the high water level of spring tides which exhibits remarkable capacity for salt water tolerance. basically evergreen land plants growing on sheltered shores, typically on tidal flats, deltas, estuaries, bays, creeks and the barrier islands. … Read more


  located where river meets the sea. the most productive water bodies in the world The complete salinity range from 0-35 ppt is seen from the head (river end) to the mouth (sea end) of an estuary Coastal lakes which have their connection with the sea through small openings are better known as lagoons or … Read more


  Areas of marsh, fen, peatland/water, whether natural (or) artificial, permanent (or) temporary with water that is static (or) flowing, fresh, brackish (or) salt, including areas of marine water the depth of which at low tide does not exceed 6 mtrs. Wetlands Classification- Inland wetland- a)Natural- Lakes / Ponds, Ox-bow Lakes, Waterlogged, Swamp/marsh b) Manmade- … Read more


  Eutrophication is a syndrome of ecosystem, response to the addition of artificial or natural substances such as nitrates and phosphates through fertilizer, sewage, etc that fertilize the aquatic ecosystem. The growth of green algae which we see in the lake surface layer is the physical identification of an Eutrophication. Some algae and blue-green bacteria … Read more


  Any – body of standing water, generally large enough in area and depth, irrespective of its hydrology, ecology, and other characteristics is generally known as lake. Ageing of Lakes The nutrient enrichment of the lakes promotes the growth of algae, aquatic plants and various fauna. This process is known as natural eutrophication. Similar nutrient … Read more

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