Excretion:In plants Excretion, the process by which animals and plants rid themselves of waste products and of the nitrogenous by-products of metabolism. Through excretion organisms control osmotic pressure—the balance between inorganic ions and water—and maintain acid-base balance. The process thus promotes homeostasis, the constancy of the organism’s internal environment. Plants have no special … Read more

Blood Bank

 Blood bank Blood bank is a place where blood is collected from donors, typed, separated into components, stored, and prepared for transfusion to recipients. A blood bank may be a separate free-standing facility or part of a larger laboratory in a hospital. Separation of blood Typically, each donated unit of blood (whole blood) … Read more

Endocrine Glands

 Endocrine glands: harmone and their function The endocrine system is made up of glands that produce and secrete hormones, chemical substances produced in the body that regulate the activity of cells or organs. These hormones regulate the body’s growth, metabolism (the physical and chemical processes of the body), and sexual development and function. … Read more


 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis, the process by which green plants and certain other organisms transform light energy into chemical energy. During photosynthesis in green plants, light energy is captured and used to convert water, carbon dioxide, and minerals into oxygen and energy-rich organic compounds. It would be impossible to overestimate the importance of photosynthesis in … Read more

Factors Affecting Photosynthesis

 Factors affecting photosynthesis There are three main factors affecting photosynthesis and several corollary factors. The three main are:   Light irradiance and wavelength Carbon dioxide concentration Temperature. Total photosynthesis is limited by a range of environmental factors. These include the amount of light available, the amount of leaf area a plant has to … Read more


 Respiration Respiration is defined as the movement of oxygen from the outside environment to the cells within tissues, and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. The physiological definition of respiration is differs from the biochemical definition, which refers to cellular respiration, a metabolic process by which an organism obtains energy … Read more

Digestive System (1)

 Digestive System Introduction v  The respiratory and circulatory systems work together to provide cells with the oxygen they need for cellular respiration. v  Cells also need glucose for cellular respiration. Glucose is a simple sugar that comes from the food we eat. v  To get glucose from food, digestion must occur. This process … Read more

Control And Coordination

 Control and coordination:Plants and animals All the living organisms respond and react to changes in the environment around them. The changes in the environment to which the organisms respond and react are called stimuli such as light, heat, cold, sound, smell, touch etc. Coordination in plants Coordination refers to ordered working of different … Read more

Circulatory System (1)

 Circulatory System The circulatory system can be compared to a system of interconnected, one-way roads that range from superhighways to back alleys. Like a network of roads, the job of the circulatory system is to allow the transport of materials from one place to another. As described in Figure below, the materials carried … Read more

Human Eye

 Human eye Human eye, in humans, specialized sense organ capable of receiving visual images, which are then carried to the brain. The eye is protected from mechanical injury by being enclosed in a socket, or orbit, which is made up of portions of several of the bones of the skull to form a … Read more

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