Mughal Empire

Mughal Empire (1526 A.D.-1857 A.D.) Babur- His actual name was Zahiruddin Mohammed, son of Omar Sheikh Mirza, the king of Ferghana in Afghanistan. His ambition was to conquer Samarkand, the seat of Timur. In 1527 A.D., Babur defeated ranasanga in the battle of Kanwa. In the battle of Chanderi (1528 A.D.), Babur defeated Mediniroy. In … Read more


Rise of Maratha Empire Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was the founder of strong Maratha Empire in the west part of India in 17th Century. Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj (Shivaji Shahaji Bhosale) was born in the fort of Shivneri, near from city Junner (Pune District), in the year 1630 (19th February’ 1630). His mother Jijabai … Read more

Liberation War of Bangladesh

  The Liberation War of Bangladesh in 1971 was the culmination of a 25-year tumultuous relationship between East and West Pakistan. The British failed to keep a united India as riots started between the Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims in 1946. The riots were so widespread that on August 14, 1947 India was portioned into two … Read more


  Each landform has its unique physical shape, size, materials and is a result of the action of certain geomorphic processes and agent(s). Every landform has a beginning. Landforms once formed may change in their shape, size and nature slowly or fast due to continued action of geomorphic processes and agents. Due to changes in … Read more

Land Revenue System under British Rule

  Since the grant of diwani for Bengal, Bihar and Orissa in 1765, the major concern of the East India Company’s administration in India was to collect as much revenue as possible. Agriculture was the main basis of economy and the main source of income and hence, although the nawabi administration was retained with Muhammad … Read more

Integration of Princely States

  Under the plan of 3 June, more than 562 princely states were given the option of joining either India or Pakistan, or choosing independence. Indian nationalists and large segments of the public feared that if these states did not accede, most of the people and territory would be fragmented. The Congress as well as … Read more

India’s Missile program

    Introduction India’s missile programme took a shot from space programme, beginning 1967. In 1972, Rohini- a 560 two-stage, solid propulsion sounding rocket was developed and test fired India first launched its small 17-tonne SLV-3 space booster in 1979 India successfully injected the 35 kg Rohini I satellite into near-earth orbit in 1980. In … Read more


FUNCTIONAL CLASSIFICATION OF TOWN AND PROBLEM OF HUMAN SETTLEMENT The definition of function varies across the disciplines. In political science it refers to duties, in mathematics it means the relationship between two variables and in geography it is synonymous to occupation. Geographers have classified towns on the basis of their site, situation, size, rank, location … Read more

Formation of Linguistic States:–

Formation of Linguistic States:– India is a land of many languages, each with its distinct script, grammar, vocabulary and literary tradition. In 1917, the Congress Party had committed itself to the creation of linguistic provinces in a Free India. After Congress’s Nagpur Session in 1920, the principle was extended and formalized with the creation of … Read more

Sources of Energy

Sources of Energy: Conventional and Nonconventional Sources – Energy is one of the most important component of economic infrastructure. It is the basic input required to sustain economic growth. There is direct relation between the level of economic development and per capita energy consumption. Simply speaking more developed a country, higher is the per capita … Read more

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