Major types of rocks and their characteristics

  They are aggregates or physical mixture of one or more minerals. Minerals on the other hand are made up of two or more elements in a definite ratio. They have a definite chemical composition. Crust is made up of more than 2000 minerals, but out of these, 6 are the most abundant and contribute … Read more


      A tsunami is a very long-wavelength wave of water that is generated by sudden displacement of the seafloor or disruption of any body of standing water. Tsunami are sometimes called “seismic sea waves”, although they can be generated by mechanisms other than earthquakes. Tsunami have also been called “tidal waves”, but this … Read more


  Earthquakes occur when energy stored in elastically strained rocks is suddenly released. This release of energy causes intense ground shaking in the area near the source of the earthquake and sends waves of elastic energy, called seismic waves, throughout the Earth. Earthquakes can be generated by bomb blasts, volcanic eruptions, sudden volume changes in … Read more

Plate tectonics

  The uppermost outer solid and rigid layer of the earth is called crust. Its thickness varies considerably. It is as little as 5 km thick beneath the oceans at some places but under some mountain ranges it extends upto a depth of 700km. Below the crust denser rocks are found, known as mantle crust. … Read more

Wegner’s Continental Drift Theory

    Alfred Wegner was a German Meteorologist in the early 1900s who studied ancient climates. Like most people, the jigsaw puzzle appearance of the Atlantic continental margins caught his attention. He put together the evidence of ancient glaciations and the distribution of fossil to formulate a theory that the continents have moved over the … Read more

Interior of earth,

  Most of the knowledge we have about Earth’s deep interior comes from the fact that seismic waves penetrate the Earth and are recorded on the other side.  Earthquake ray paths and arrival times are more complex than illustrated in the animations, because velocity in the Earth does not simply increase with depth. Velocities generally … Read more

Origin and evolution of earth

  Beginning of the Universe started about 13.6 billion years ago,when the Big Bang created the universe from a point source. During this process, light elements, like H, He, Li, B, and Be formed. From this point in time, the universe began to expand and has been expanding ever since. Concentrations of gas and dust … Read more

Various National Missions and Programmes:-

MNREGA Jan Dhan Yojna Atal Pension Yojna Skill India Mission Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Gram Jyoti Yojana Pradhan Mantri Suraksha Bima Yojana Pradhan Mantri Jeevan Jyoti Bima Yojana Sukanya Samridhi Yojana Pradhan Mantri  Garib Kalyan Yojana Jan Aushadhi Yojana (JAY) Nai Manzil Scheme for minority students The Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (PMAY) or Housing for all … Read more

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