Animal Husbandry of Karnataka
The Animal Husbandry and Livestock Sector plays an important role for the rural economy of Karnataka. Animal husbandry plays a vital role and provides additional source of income to the farmers of the country. Animal products, for long, have also played an important role in the socio-economic life of the country. It has been a rich source of high quality animal products that have added greater nutritional value to the diet of both the farmers and other consumers as well. Products derived from animal husbandry mainly include milk, meat and eggs.
India is the largest milk producer of the world, accounting for 16.43 percent of the global milk production. It also accounts for 4.95 percent of the world’s egg production. Total Livestock population in the Country is 512.05 million numbers. India, has the largest population of milch animals in the world, comprising of 190.9 million cows, 108.7 million buffaloes, 135 million goats and 65 million sheep in 2012. The major items of export include sheep/goat meat, buffalo meat, poultry products, dairy products, animal casing, natural honey, processed and other kinds of meat.
During 2015-16, the share of Animal Husbandry in Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of Agriculture and Allied activities was 18.78%. As per 19th Livestock Census, the share of Karnataka in all India livestock and poultry population was 5.41% and 7.33% respectively. The density of livestock in the state was estimated at 151.21 per sq.km and 47468 per lakh human population.
During 2015-16, Karnataka State ranks eleventh among Indian States. The production of milk in the State was 6.34 million MT during the year 2015-16.
Karnataka Milk Federation provides remunerative price and also provides market to the rural milk producers of the state and supplying pure milk and milk products to the consumers. The Federation has 22 dairy processing plants with a capacity of 56.80 lakh liters / day.
The Karnataka Milk Federation in its jurisdiction has 5 cattle feed plants which produce 45000 MT of cattle feed / month. The plants have ISO 9001/2000 certification for quality production and supply of cattle feed to producers. At present, 13484 dairy cooperative societies are functioning, within the limit of 14 district milk federation, 23.78 lakh farmers are enrolled as members, out of which, 8.37 lakh farmers are active members.
To mitigate the shortage of green fodder in the State livestock farms, fodder production, fodder seed production and training of farmers are being undertaken with the assistance of State disaster relief fund, RKVY Centrally sponsored scheme and Calamity Relief funds. During 2015-16, under State Disaster Management funds 12 lakh fodder mini-kits worth of Rs.30 crore have been distributed to the farmers of drought prone taluks from which 70 to 75 lakh metric tonne green fodder yield is expected.
Various Programmes for the development of Animal Husbandry sector are
Animal Health and Veterinary Services (AH&VS)
During 2015-16, the livestock and poultry are rendered by health services through a network of 4215 Veterinary Institutions, comprising of 30 District Poly Clinic, 664 Veterinary Hospitals,1833 Veterinary Dispensaries,1512 Primary Veterinary Centers and 176 mobile veterinary clinics. Further 362 Artificial insemination centers and 64 other Veterinary Institutions are also rendering services.
Artificial Insemination (AI) Programme
Sperm stations of frozen sperms are located at Bangalore and Dharwad. The Artificial Insemination (AI) facility has been provided in 4215 centres.
National Program on Bovine Breeding and Dairy Development (NPBBDD)
Dairy development is being implemented by the Karnataka Milk Federation. The Government of India has approved the program for 2014-15 to 2016-17 with an allocation of Rs. 38.56 crores.
Under the Centrally sponsored National Livestock Mission, Risk Management insurance cover to a maximum of 5 crossbred cattle and buffaloes per household is provided. 40%of the premium is paid as assistance. During 2016-17, 74092 animals are insured up to the end of December 2016.
Imported semen of elite HF and Jersey breeds is being used to upgrade the genetic potentiality of HF & Jersey crossbred cows. A fee of Rs.85/- per dose is collected from the farmers.
750 Multipurpose Artificial Insemination Technicians in Rural India (MAITRI) are being trained and MAITRI centers have been established in 11 Districts in places where A.I. and other Veterinary services are not extended either by the department or KMF. The program will be extended to other districts during 2017-18. Up to December 2016 totally 484 MAITRI workers have been trained.
Under Rashtriya Gokul Mission(GKM) ,the Government of India has approved a proposal of Rs.1086.51 lakhs under NPBBDD to establish a Gokul Gram to conserve and develop local indigenous breeds specially Deoni, where programme and performance recording of deoni cows being undertaken.
12 Liquid Nitrogen Silos (LNS) will be established at 12 selected places in the state to strengthen the liquid Nitrogen and semen straws supply network.
For the development of cattle in the state, Indigenous breeds like Hallikar, Amrithmahal and Khillar are given importance by selective breeding in the livestock farms located at Kunikenahalli in Tumkur, Ajjampura in Chikmagalur and Bankapura in Haveri districts respectively. Production capacity of Amrithmahal breed cows is estimated elite females are being identified and Amrithmahal Breeders co operative societies being formed. Frozen semen doses required for artificial insemination are produced at Hessaraghatta and Dharwad Frozen Semen Centers and supplied for breeding purposes.
Karnataka Sheep and Wool Development Corporation (KSWDCL)
Cross breed rams are distributed from sheep breeding centers to sheep farmers for improving breeds. In 2015-16, a total number of 147 cross Breed Rams/Rams were distributed. Under Kendriya Bhed Palak Bheema Yojana during 2015-16 , 1454 sheep farmers were insured and Rs 18.6 lakhs has been given as compensation by Life Insurance Corporation of India towards death of 31 shepherds.
KSWDCL is implementing Sheep and Wool Improvement Scheme (SWIS)in co-ordination with the Central Wool Development Board, Jodhpur. The scheme has been implemented in the project areas of Muddebihal, Chikkaballapur and Molkalmur Talukas, during 2015-16 the scheme is implemented in Sira, Hospet, Lingasaguru, Chincholi, Bidar and Aurad and Gokak Taluks. 84 CB Rams distributed in Chikkaballapur Taluk. As a part of breed improvement programme, during 2015-16, Karnataka Sheep and Wool Development Corporation distributed 396 cross breed rams and 352 rams to shepherds at subsidized rates. During 2016-17, 556 rams are distributed.
343 beneficiaries of sheep & wool producers Co-operative Societies have been benefitted by getting 25% subsidy for 10 sheep and 1 goat units at the unit cost of Rs.52,000/- & Rs.49,000/- respectively.
Under this programme, the SC & ST members of sheep and wool producers Co-operative Societies received 75% subsidy for 10 sheep and 1 goat unit. At the unit cost of Rs.52,000/- and Rs.49,000/- respectively. Remaining loan portion is provided through local Grameen Banks/Nationalized Banks.
Shepherds Suraksha Yojana
Relief will be provided to shepherds to overcome the accidental loss due to death of sheep and goats under the scheme. It is proposed to grant ex-gratia compensation of Rs. 5,000/- to each sheep and goat which is above 6 months age and which die accidentally or die due to certified epidemic diseases not covered under Natural Calamity Relief or Insurance Schemes
There are 24 poultry farms functioning under the Department of AH&VS for development of poultry in the State. The major developmental activities are breeding and rearing of Giriraja parent stock and supply of day old chicks to the farmers. During 2015- 16, 1623 farmers were trained in poultry rearing and 236250 Giriraja chicks were produced. During the current year 2016-17 up to the end December-2016, 4,08,072 eggs and 2,03,522 chicks were produced.
In the state, there are 5 pig Breeding Stations, located in Hessarghatta in Bengaluru District, Kudige in Kodagu District, Koila in Dakshina Kannada District and Bangarpet in Kolar District and Kalasa in Chickmaglur District Among other activities, these stations are engaged in production and distribution of purebred piglets to beneficiaries of various social-economic programmes, training and extension services in modern pig rearing. In the state, most of the unemployed educated youths and farmers are interested in modern pig rearing as a result of which, production of good quality pork and the lifestyle of the pig rearers are being promoted. Under RKVY scheme, Pig Breeders co-op societies have been established to provide good quality of pork and marketing facility.
Feed and Fodder Development:
To mitigate the shortage of green fodder in the State livestock farms, fodder production, fodder seed production and training of farmers are being undertaken with the assistance of State disaster relief fund, RKVY Centrally sponsored scheme and Calamity Relief funds.
Assistance to State for Control of Animal Diseases (ASCAD)
Animals are prevented from various diseases by providing financial assistance for systematic control of livestock diseases of national importance. Animal Disease Surveillance, up gradation of Diagnostic Laboratory and Biological production Units. For Organization of Seminars and training programmes 100% funding is done by GOI.
- Mass vaccination Programmes
Several mass vaccination programmes are being implemented in the State. Up to 2014-15, GOI has provided 100% assistance for various mass vaccinations. But under ASCAD the sharing pattern was 75:25.The sharing pattern from 2015-16 onwards is 60:40 under ASCAD, FMD-CP, PPR-CP and BCP.
- Foot and Mouth Disease Control Program(FMD-CP)
Foot and Mouth Disease Control Programme is being implemented in the state since 2011 and 10 rounds of vaccination programmes have been successfully completed.
- National Animals Disease Reporting System (NADRS)
This programme envisages periodical online reporting of outbreaks of diseases from the field veterinarians. All the 176 block and 30 districts and 2 centers at state level have been provided with the hardware, software and internet facility.
- National Programme on Brucellosis Control This disease is characterized by abortions in last trimester of pregnancy and it is communicable to persons in contact with the animals (Zoonotic). Vaccination of 6-8 month old female calves protects them for lifetime.
- National control programme on Peste Des Petits Ruminants (PPR) control Programme:
The mass vaccination of Sheep and goats against PPR is being implemented since 2011- 12, during which 116.33 lakhs sheep and goats were vaccinated.
Karnataka Milk Federation
The Karnataka Cooperative Milk Federation has been formed on Co-operative basis which has three tier system.
1) Milk cooperative societies at primary level.
2) Cooperative unions at district level.
3) Federation at state level.
Under Operation Flood many progrmmes has been initiated. This organization has the responsibility of providing remunerative price and market to the rural milk producers of the state and supplying pure milk and milk products to the consumers.
Dairy Programme for women
Government of Karnataka in the state budget for the year 2007-08 introduced Amruth yojana for devdasis/ widows and Schedule Caste and Schedule Tribe women, with one milch animal to each member to take up dairying as source of earning, to uplift their socio-economic condition.
At present for the year 2015-16 the scheme have been merged with “Pashu Bhagya” scheme.
Karnataka Milk Federation and district milk unions have utilized grants received from government of the state for strengthening infrastructure development. Rs.1110.00 lakhs released to develop the infrastructures facility, establishment of new dairy at Chamarajanagar and expansion of milk powder plant at Channarayapatna.
Incentives to Milk Producers
In 2008-09, a scheme to make dairy farming more remunerative for rural families specially for rural women. GOK is providing a cash incentive of Rs.2/- per litre of milk sold by farmers to milk cooperative societies. The programme has been continued. Government of Karnataka during the year 2013-14, has enhanced the milk incentive from Rs.2/- to Rs.4/- per liter of milk procured w.e.f 14.05.2013.
Incentives to milk society staff
The staff working in DCS play important role in clean milk in Dairy Co-operative Societies and successfully implementing government schemes and distributing milk incentive to producers bank account directly etc.
National Programme for Dairy Development (NPDD):
In order to improve the quality of the milk, the milk has to be chilled as early as possible. For this, the Bulk Milk Coolers(BMC) are being established at village dairy cooperative societies. Training of farmers, supply of detergents, supply of stainless steel equipments etc., are undertaken in this programme.
KMF initiated ‘Ksheera Sanjeevini’ Phase-I project with the help of Sanjeevini-KSRLPS from April 2014. The proposed project intended to cover 250 existing Women Dairy Co-operative Societies(WDCS) in 30 District under the fold of Ksheera Sanjeevini scheme.
In 2016-17, Rs.3.48 crores has been released from GOK to cover 70 WDCS and all the programmes are being implemented.
Development of the Sector
The Milk procurement, membership and the artificial insemination have considerably increased due incentive to dairy development activities. There by bringing financial growth in the dairy sector. This growth has brought in socio-economic development at the grass route level. Dairying has become a sustainable activity by providing continuous remunerative price for the milk. Kshree Bhagya yojana wherein the school children/Anganwadi children are provided with 150 ml of milk a day to overcome nutritional deficiency .
Positive developments :-
There is an average milk procurement of 67.00 lakhs litres per day with an average liquid milk sales of 37.60 lakh liter per day, the balance being converted into different form of milk products.
There is an increase in the number of Dairy Cooperative Societies organized at the village level covering almost all the districts of Karnataka,
Women Dairy Co-operative Societies are being organized under the STEP Scheme only for Women.
- To provide remunerative market round the year for the milk produced by the farmer members,
- To increase the quality of milk and to provide other premier dairy products to urban consumers,
- To ensure prosperity of the rural milk producers.
- To compete with MNC’s and private dairies with better quality of milk and milk products and in the process, sustain viability of co-operatives.
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