Important Notes & Rules of Noun
Noun can be grouped into many forms like, Proper noun (includes names), countable noun & Uncountable noun.
General Rules to make plural of a Noun:
- Latin words (…..us changes to ….i)
- Syllabus – Syllabi,
- Fungus – Fungi,
- Focus – Foci,
- Radius – Radii
- Locus – loci
- …..on changes to ….a
- Criterion – Criteria,
- Phenomenon – Phenomena
- …..um changes to ….a
- Datum – Data
- Bacterium – Bacteria
- Stratum – Strata
- …..is changes to ….es
- Axis – Axes
- Oasis – Oases
- Hypothesis – Hypotheses
In compound noun “s” is added to an important noun
- Maid Servant: Maid Servants
- Chief Minister: Chief Ministers
- Sister-in-law: Sisters-in-law
- Major general: Major Generals
Digits & letters are made plural by adding ’s to them.
Like, P’s, 9’s
- There are two P’s in puppet.
Abbreviation are made plural by adding small s to them
Like MLAs, BAs, CMs
- National security meet in the national capital was attended by all the CMs.
- Only BAs are eligible to apply for this post.
Some nouns have different meanings in singular and plural.
- Pain & Pains (Effort)
- Physic (Medicine) & Physics (Subject)
- Iron & Irons (Handcuff)
- Good & Goods (Commodity)
- Order & Orders (Official Instruction)
Use of Possessive Case
- If there are two nouns & both are non-living we use of instead of apostrophe.
- The fan of the room, The leg of the table
- If there are two nouns & both are living or one is living we use ‘s
- Ram’s Brother, Garima’s Beautiful Garden, Rakhi’s Diary
- Apostrophe is not used with possessive pronoun like his, hers, yours ours etc.
- Yours truly
- Yours faithfully
- If the last letter is s than we only use Apostrophe
- Boys’ Hostel
- Dickens’ Novel
- Girls’ School
- a) We use ‘s with noun words that shows time, weight, distance, amount, or personified noun.
- An hour’s distance
- A rupee’s worth
- A kilometer’s journey
- Nature’s Laws
- b) Some non-living noun also take ‘s to show respect.
- A court’s order
- At duty’s call
- c) With phrases
- at wit’s end
- at a stone’s throw
- If the last letter of a word make hissing sound (….ce, ….s)& the word sake is after it. We use only apostrophe
- Justice’ Sake
- Conscience’ Sake
- Goodness’ Sake
- Double Apostrophe is not used if it represents the same person.
- My Friend’s brother’s wife has expired. (Wrong)
- The wife of my friend’s brother has expired.
- When else is coming with word like somebody, nobody apostrophe s is used with else.
- I cannot rely on somebody else’s word.
- I obey your orders and nobody else’s.
Certain nouns are always used in singular in form & function.
- Damage etc
Usage of Nouns which are always used in singular in form & function
- The scenery of Kashmir is breathtaking.
- This furniture is no longer usable.
- We require five pieces of furniture for our new office.
- They left their luggage at the airport.
Certain Nouns are always plural in form & function.
- Outskirts etc
Usage of Nouns which are always used in plural in form & function
Alms given to the beggar are sometime misused.
Eatables are not allowed in the metro station.
Scissors are required for cutting the paper.
A pair of scissors is required at the office.
- Poem is Countable noun (So it can singular and plural) while Poetry is uncountable noun (so it is always used as singular).
- Cost/Marketing is used by dealer & price/Shopping is used by customer.
Find out the errors in the following sentences –
1. The Indian team defeated the Sri Lankan team by an inning.
2. Last year, I went to Kashmir and liked the scenery there.
3. These kind of shirts are not liked by me.
4. He gave me a hundred rupees note.
5. Virat Kohli has completed his 7 thousands runs in One Day International matches.
6. The Hindus, the Sikhs, the Christians, the Muslims all are brothers and must live together with love and peace.
7. This news has published in one of the esteemed newspaper of the country.
8. She provided me with two information I had been seeking for.
9. The child weighs only two stones.
10. Five yokes of oxen were grazing in the field.
11. I met him several time last month.
12. There are two fruit for you in the breakfast.
13. His house town is Chandigarh.
14. She is our English teacher.
15. One of his son has gone to Dubai.
16. Fishes can’t live without water.
17. The price of production of this item is very high.
18. There were 54 candidates for lectureship.
19. They are my family members.
20. She is my cousin sister.
21. We are yet starting (1) / offering this facility to (2) / our customers as we are (3) / awaiting approval from the Board. (4) / No error (5)
22. The Chairmen of all large (1) / public sector banks met with (2) / senior RBI officials to give its (3) / suggestions about implementing the new policy. (4) / No error (5).
23. They have not fully considered (1) / the impact that relaxing (2) / these guidelines is likely (3)/ to have with the economy (4) / No error (5)
24. Had this notification (1) / been amended earlier, (2) / we could have stopped (3) / the transfer of funds. (4) / No error (5)
25. There are many insurance (1) / disputes nowadays because of (2) / most people do not fully (3) / understand the terms and conditions of their policies (4) / No error (5)
26. India needs a value education system (1) / who will inculcate values (2) / among the students and (3) / enrich their personalities. (4) / No error (5)
1. an innings
2. the given sentence is correct
4. hundred rupee note
5. thousand run
8. the given sentence is correct
13. home town
14. our teacher of English
17. cost in place of price
18. the given sentence is correct
19. They are members of my family
20. Cousin doesn’t take brother or sister with it.
21. Replace we are yet starting by we are yet to start.
22. Replace its by their.
23. Replace to have with the economy by to have on the economy.
25. No Spotting error
25. Replace disputes now a days because of by disputes now a days because. It is superfluous to use preposition of as subordinate clause follows.
26. Replace relative pronoun who by which because non-living thing has been used
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