Migration of Karnataka
Karnataka (originally Mysore) formed on 1 November 1956, with the passage of state reorganization act 1956. Karnataka is southern state of India surrounded by Maharastra and Goa in North, Tamil Nadu and Kerala in south, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana in east and Arabian sea in west. The state covers an area of 191,976 square kilometres, or 5.83 percent of the total geographical area of India and is 7th largest by area among states.
Total population of Karnataka is 61,130,704 in the 2011 census of which (50.7%) were male and about (49.3%) were female.. Karnataka is 8th largest state by population, comprising 30 districts. The analysis of Population Census 2011 published by Govt. of India for Karnataka state reveal that population of Karnataka has increased by 15.60% in this decade (2001-2011). The density of Karnataka state in the current decade is 825 per sqmile(or 319 per sq km).
This increase in population is because of various reasons and Migration is one of the three basic reasons of population growth (other two are fertility and mortality). It plays an important role in improving economic and social conditions of people. Indian constitution gives basic freedom to its citizens to move to any part of the country, right to reside and earn livelihood of their choice. A number of factors play an important role in decision to move, like economic, social, cultural and political factors.Migration affects not only the size but also the composition of the population of both origin and destination.
By Aanalysing the trend and pattem of various types of migration, such as Intra-district, Inter-district, Inter-state, rural-rural, rural-urban, urban-urban and urban-rural migration in Karnataka and the reasons behind the migration one can say that there is total out migration form Karnataka .
Volume and trend of migration in Karnataka:
According to 2001 census, 16.2 million persons out of total population of 52.8 million in Karnataka were enumerated at a place different from the place of birth and thus termed as migrants. This constitutes 30.62 % (31.26 percent in 1971) of the total population of the state in 2001. In terms of absolute figures, number has increased from 9.1 million in 1971 to 16.2million in 2001.
Sex wise difference in migration In 2001, 20.65% male and 40.95% female population enumerated outside their place of birth in Karnataka. The prevailing marriage custom in India of brides moving to place of groom after marriage terms most of female as migrants in major reason of migration of female. But still, percentage of female migrants is lower in Karnataka compared to India as a whole.
Distance and direction of migration flows:
It is evident from census that migrants mainly move over short distances, they move within district. As distance increases proportion of migrants decreases.Out of total migrants in Karnataka, intra-district migration dominates contributes to about 58.90percent in total in 2001; inter-district migration was 27.80 percent and international migration was 0.27 percent of population.Inter-district, interstate and international male migration is higher than that of female migration in all the census years, but intra-district male migration is lower than female migration in both Karnataka and India.The proportion of migrants moved due to employment related reasons, increases with the increasing distance. Where as proportion of migrants moving due to marriage decline remarkably with the distance.
Reasons for migration:
Reasons for migrations are many and varied over time. In 1981, the reasons for migration was categorized into five groups viz., employment, education, family moved, marriage and others. Wheares in 2001 and later new dimensions like business, drought (Lambani community) andother natural calamities were became significant. In 2001, 11.37 % have migrated for work/employment, 0.94 percent for business, 2.08 percent for education, 42.31 percent for marriage purpose, 9.58 percent for moved after birth, 12.30 percent moved with household and 21.43 percent migrants moved due to other reasons.
The National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) data (2007–08) shows that while the rate of migration in Karnataka is pegged at 38, there are vast differences between caste groups. It is 25.7 per cent for the Scheduled Tribes (STs), 34 per cent for the Scheduled Castes (SCs), 41 per cent for the other backward classes (OBCs) and 38 per cent for others. Rural-to-rural migration that is highest among SCs (73 per cent) and STs (78 per cent), as opposed to OBCs (58 per cent), others (42 per cent), and average (56 per cent). Rural-to-rural migration is in search of agricultural wage labour from dry to irrigated areas, from subsistence crop areas to commercial crop areas.Rural to urban migration is next to rural to rural migration in terms of volume. Rural to urban migration is mainly economic in nature and accompanies the process of modernization and industrialization.According to 2011 Census — strong bias against Dalits is also a major reason for migration patterns as they move out to access education and employment.
Reason for in migration in Karnataka:
In the past decade itself around 37 lakh students have left their home states to study in Karnataka, the most popular choice for migrating students in India. This is mainly because of improvement of quality education, emergence of new private universities, new IITs, new IIMs and greater awareness levels, students prefer to change states and not countries.
More than 85 percent of in-migrants are from the neighbouring state of Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Maharastra and Kerala while, 94 percent of out-migrants from Karnataka going to the neighbouring state of Maharastra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu, Kerala and Goa in 2001.
Finally, “Migration is good if it is for a good opportunity, but distress migrants migrate out of compulsion, and they end up being in a worse situation than in their place of origin. They work for very low wages and in bad conditions. Dalit labourers selectively face discrimination in hiring. In rural areas, they are denied employment in certain categories of jobs, while in others they are forced to engage.”
Population share in rural-urban areas in Karnataka
Social group – Rural – Urban
SCs – 71.6 – 28.4
STs – 80.7 – 19.3
Others – 57.2 – 42.8
All – 61.9 – 38.1
(Source: Census of India, 2011)
Rate of migration according to social groups in Karnataka
Scheduled Castes –34
Scheduled Tribes – 25.7
OBCs – 41
Others – 38
(Source: National Sample Survey (2007-08))
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