DMPQ: Impact of Industrial revolution was huge on Europe in general and Britain in particular. Comment

Industrial revolution changed the entire economy of British. Though it was majorly an economic phenomenon, it greatly affected the social and political life of the countries it was prevalent in. The impact of IR can be categorised as follows:

  • Social:


  • Migration of people to industrial towns. These towns converted into cities. Excessive migration led to growth of slums. These migrants started to live the unhygienic life.
  • Low wages and high cost of living in the cities compelled women and children to work in Industries. The exploitation of women and children resulted in  “ stunned bodies, deformed backs, horribly twisted legs.


  • IR led to sharp division in the society. The society get divided into two classes i.e. the Bourgeois and the proletariat. The former consisted of factory owners, great bankers, small industrialists, merchants and professional men. They amassed great wealth and paid very low wages to the workers.


  • Social inequality increased with the advent of IR. It also lead to increased disharmony among various class.


Political Impact:

  • Decline of feudalism.
  • Colonialism and Imperialism: Annexation of other countries.
  • Annexation of other countries led to sharp divide in the world countries. World came to be divided into two groups i.e. developed and underdeveloped.
  • A large number of European got settled in America and Australia.
  • A number of factory laws were enacted to improve the lot of workers.
  • Shifting of people from the south to north led to the demand of distribution of seats in the parliament.
  • Movement known as chartist movement was launched to press for the demands of workers. It also demanded universal adult suffrage, secret voting, equal electoral districts, no property qualifications for membership.
  • Trade unions got sanction and they became the part of political structure.
  • Finally, industrial revolution paved the way for the development of new social and economic doctrines.



  • Rapid generation of wealth.
  • More scientific innovation.
  • Increase in the living standard.
  • Rise in the Income Inequality.
  • Better infra: Roads, railways. More Research and development in Health sector.
  • Development of urban life. Growth of Industrial and service sector.


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