Jyotirao Govindrao Phule struggled for the upliftment of lower castes through his Satya Shodhak Samaj. Belonging to the Mali caste, which supplies flowers to the Peshwa’s family, he had suffered humiliation, which made him to turn against caste inequalities. He strongly criticized the Brahmanical domination in the name of religion. He was also critic of Indian National Congress for neglecting the weaker sections.
The aim of his organization was to achieve social justice for weaker sections of the society. He opened a number of schools, orphanages for the children and women belonging to all castes. He was elected as a member of the Poona Municipal committee in 1876. His writings include Dharma Tritiya Ratna, Ishara, Life of Shivaji, etc.
In 1888, he was honored with the title of Mahatma. Soon Dr B.R. Ambedkar took up the mantle of fighting for the cause of depressed castes in the twentieth century as part of Indian National Movement. His efforts culminated in the form of enactment of the reservation system for socially underprivileged sections in the Constitution of India.
Shri Narayana Dharma Paripalana Yogam Movement: The non-Brahmin movement found reflection in Kerala under the leadership of Shri Narayana Guru who belonged to the backward Ezhava caste. He established the SNDP Yogam with its branches outside the Kerala State also. He launched a two-point program for the upliftment of the Ezhavas to root out-the practice of untouchability.
As a second step Narayana Guru built a number of temples, which were declared open to all castes. He also simplified rituals regarding marriage, religious worship, and funerals. Narayana Guru achieved a notable success in transforming the untouchable groups into a backward class. He criticized Gandhi for his faith in Chaturvarna, which he considered the parent of the caste system and untouchability. He gave a new slogan “one religion, one caste and one God for mankind”.KPSC Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for KPSC Prelims and KPSC Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by KPSC Notes are as follows:-
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