An ocean tide refers to the cyclic rise and fall of seawater. Tides are caused by slight variations in gravitational attraction between the Earth and the moon and the Sun in geometric relationship with locations on the Earth’s surface. Tides are periodic primarily because of the cyclical influence of the Earth’s rotation.
The moon is the primary factor controlling the temporal rhythm and height of tides. The moon produces two tidal bulges somewhere on the Earth through the effects of gravitational attraction. The height of these tidal bulges is controlled by the moon’s gravitational force and the Earth’s gravity pulling the water back toward the Earth. At the location on the Earth closest to the moon, seawater is drawn toward the moon because of the greater strength of gravitational attraction. On the opposite side of the Earth, another tidal bulge is produced away from the moon. However, this bulge is due to the fact that at this point on the Earth the force of the moon’s gravity is at its weakest. Considering this information, any given point on the Earth’s surface should experience two tidal crests and two tidal troughs during each tidal period.
The timing of tidal events is related to the Earth’s rotation and the revolution of the moon around the Earth. If the moon was stationary in space, the tidal cycle would be 24 hours long. However, the moon is in motion revolving around the Earth. One revolution takes about 27 days and adds about 50 minutes to the tidal cycle. As a result, the tidal period is 24 hours and 50 minutes in length.
The second factor controlling tides on the Earth’s surface is the Sun’s gravity. The height of the average solar tide is about 50% the average lunar tide. At certain times during the moon’s revolution around the Earth, the direction of its gravitational attraction is aligned with the Sun’s. During these times the two tide producing bodies act together to create the highest and lowest tides of the year. These spring tides occur every 14-15 days during full and new moons.
When the gravitational pull of the moon and Sun are at right angles to each other, the daily tidal variations on the Earth are at their least. These events are called neap tides and they occur during the first and last quarter of the moon.
The geometric relationship of moon and Sun to locations on the Earth’s surface results in creation of three different types of tides. In parts of the northern Gulf of Mexico and Southeast Asia, tides have one high and one low water per tidal day . These tides are called diurnal tides.
Semi-diurnal tides have two high and two low waters per tidal day . They are common on the Atlantic coasts of the United States and Europe.
Many parts of the world experience mixed tides where successive high-water and low-water stands differ appreciably. In these tides, we have a higher high water and lower high water as well as higher low water and lower low water. The tides around west coast of Canada and the United States are of this type.
Temperature of oceans
The temperature of the ocean determines what form the water takes. Most of the ocean is liquid water, but if it gets cold enough, it turns to solid ice, or if it gets hot enough, it can pass into the atmosphere as water vapour.
Water warms up more slowly than air but can hold more heat – water needs 4 times as much energy to raise its temperature by 1ºC as the same mass of air does – so the ocean plays an important part in taking up energy from the Sun and stopping the Earth getting too hot.
Variation in temperature
The temperature of the ocean, especially the surface, varies from place to place and from season to season. Ocean temperature depends on the amount of solar energy absorbed.
Tropical oceans receive a lot of direct overhead sunlight for much of the year, so the water is warm. Summer is the only time polar regions receive sunlight, and even then, it is never directly overhead, so water in these places tends to be cold. The amount of sunlight that hits the temperate regions (between the tropics and the poles) varies between summer and winter. The variation in solar energy absorbed means that the ocean surface can vary in temperature from a warm 30°C in the tropics to a very cold -2°C near the poles.
The temperature of the ocean also varies from top to bottom, giving a vertical structure to most of the ocean. There is an upper layer of water, up to 200m deep, that is warmed by the Sun and has the same temperature from top to bottom. Below that is a layer called the thermocline, reaching down in places to 1000m, which is colder at the bottom than at the top. The deep ocean below the thermocline, making up 80% of the ocean, is the same very cold temperature throughout.
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