Education has been accepted as one major agency of socialization, and teachers and educational institutions as socializing agents. In describing education as an instrument of social change, three things are important: the agents of change, the content of change, and the social background of those who are sought to be changed, i.e. students. Educational institutions under the control of different cultural groups reflect the values of those groups which support and control education. In this situation, teachers Impart specific values, aspirations and to the children.
Social reformers, who were educated emphasized values like removal of caste restrictions, equality of women, doing away with social evil social customs and practices, voice in the governance of the country, establishing democratic institutions and so on. They, thus, wanted to teach liberal philosophy through education for changing society. In other words they regarded education as a flame or light of knowledge which dispelled the darkness of ignorance. The use of education for spreading the values of modernization came to be emphasized from the 1960s and 1970s onwards. Highly productive economies, distributive justice, people‟s participation in decision-making bodies, adoption of scientific technology in industry, agriculture and other occupations and professions were accepted as goals for modernizing the Indian society. And these goals were to be achieved through liberal education. Thus, modernization was not accepted as a philosophy or a movement based on rational values system but as a process that was to be confined only to economic field but was to be achieved in social, political, cultural and religious fields too. Education was sought to be utilized as channel for the spread of modernity.
According to the sociological perspective, education does not arise in response of the individual needs of the individual, but it arises out of the needs of the society of which the individual is a member1. The educational system of any society is related to its total social system. It is a sub system performing certain functions for the on-going social system. The goals and needs of the total social system get reflected in the functions it lays down for educational system and the form in which it structures it to fulfill those functions. In a static society, the main function of the educational system is to transmit the cultural heritage to the new generations. But in a changing society, these keep on changing from generation to generation and the educational system in such a society must not only transmit the cultural heritage, but also aid in preparing the young for adjustment to any changes in them that may have occurred or are likely to occur in future.
Thus, the relationship between educational system and society is mutual; sometimes the society influences changes in educational system and at other times the educational system influences changes in the society.
Education of Women :-
The National Policy on Education, 1986 also laid emphasis on education for attaining women‟s equality which will foster the development of new values. The strategies proposed are: encouraging educational institutions to take up active programmes to further women‟s development removal of women‟s illiteracy, removing obstacles inhibiting their access to elementary education, and pursuing policy of non-discrimination to eliminate sex stereotyping in vocational, technical and professional courses.
Education of SCs, STs. And OBCs
Education is directly related to the development of an individual and the community. It is the most important single factor for economic development as well as social emancipation. For the weaker sections of society, education has a special significance because for a number of centuries, their illiteracy and social backwardness have been used for their harassment, humiliation and economic exploitation.
Education and Human resource Development
Education shapes our present actions, our future plans and our past history which also develops in the future . Education is a very crucial to guide anyone to reach their goals through any success with an effort along , and the chance is very high. Example if you compare a person with masters to a person with only a high school diploma salary is totally different and there is huge gap amount between it. Educations helps you to better understand the world and with that being said education plays big role in human development and indeed it is a great to resource us.
Now a days education is very important ,without education the life of a person is just useless .He cannot do any work ,moreover today we cannot easily get a job if we are not educated. It teaches us the basic principles of life without it a person is useless. Education is perfection.
Higher education institutions themselves play a key role in equipping young people with the workforce skills needed by business. But these needs change quickly and often learning institutions are slow to respond. In this regard, stronger links between universities, businesses, trade unions and other stakeholders can help reshape course offerings to stay closely in line with evolving demands for specific skills. Co-operation can also bring other benefits favouring the investment environment, such as fostering an environment conducive to innovation and the quick diffusion of new knowledge.
Education is an effective and pervasive phenomenon for all round individual development and social transformation. This alone can sustain culture and civilization. A balanced development of mind and body in harmony with the spirit is the key to the enrichment of human personality and an outcome of value–based education, which must in the ultimate analysis help humanity to transcend to a higher level of consciousness. Our children must from their infancy be taught the dignity of labour. Thus, the true meaning of education is harmonious development of head, heart and hand i.e., enlightenment of mind, compassion and dignity of labour. Moral and spiritual training is an essential part of education. If education is to help us to meet the moral challenge of the age and play its part in the life of the community, it should be liberating and life giving. It must give a basic meaning to one’s existence and equip us with the ability to overcome spiritual inertia and foster spiritual sensitivity. Temples of learning should produce men and women who will move together to develop common ideals and purposes, love each other and co-exist to create common wealth.
Education is not injection or injunction. It is not indoctrination of views and ideas or just an imposition of one’s views upon others. In short, education should not be an infliction, because the moment it becomes an infliction, the consequence is indiscipline amongst learners. A vast responsibility rests on our educational institutions and those who guide their destinies. They need to be alert and should not wander from the right path even when passion convulses the multitude and blinds many amongst those whose duty is to set an example to others. If these are the ideals and objectives of education, how can we achieve these in the existing scenario of education which is in a state of anarchy and chaotic condition at all levels – primary to higher education. Educational system in India today is in a critical state – resistant to change and in danger of becoming irrelevant.
Thus, it needs a drastic reconstruction – almost revamping. The greatest challenge the world is facing today is the crisis of confidence and character, mental and moral decay and break down of rich traditions. The root cause of all these is fear, hatred, greed, prejudice, intolerance and violence. Therefore, efforts need to be made to eliminate these divisive forces, which is possible only by value-based education that involves harmonious development of the body, mind and spirit. True knowledge consists of self understanding and self-control. Non-violence seems to be the highest form of knowledge. If education has to serve the humanity and defuse human suffering.
it must teach and train us to respect each other (universal brotherhood), love each other (universal love), practice compassion and uphold the dignity of all lives. Then only one will have peace. In a world which is primarily split between a few haves and majority of have-nots, tensions, diversities, self-centered vision, violence, terrorism and consumerism are creating a dreadful scenario of a bleeding world and a blood splattered humanity. In this chaotic atmosphere, value–based education is the only hope for synthesizing the moral fabric of an individual and generating a culture of peace in the society. Education must aim at the development of moral, spiritual and ethical values and we should seek them in our own heritage as well as in progressive cultures and civilizations. It should be such that Indians do not lose sight of their rich heritage – their thought must be rooted in the ideals set forth in the great writings and works of our sages, poets and philosophers. The noble goals and high values set forth in our precious culture must be adhered to. It has been emphasized time and again that conscious efforts should be made for the development of social, moral and spiritual values with the help of ethical teachings of the great religious teachers.
Character and Personality Development
Teachers can play a vital role in this regard. A teacher must succeed in conveying the larger ideals of service to the community, virtues of tolerance and respect for all faiths, importance of character, integrity and discipline and the value of humanism to his pupil. The later should also be made aware of our heritage and culture. They should develop a mature attitude towards religion. Acquaintance with prayers of different religions and hymns and songs of various faiths may also help young minds to recognize the intrinsic purity, beauty and practical usefulness of different religious thoughts. A UNESCO report on education for the 21st century entitled Learning. The Treasure Within also pleads for an education which is ‘rooted in culture and committed to progress’. Developing a harmonious and integrated personality would just not be possible if the system does not inculcate values embedded in the culture, heritage and traditions. Indian heritage, culture and values need to be thoroughly studied, analyzed and incorporated comprehensively in the educational system right from the pre-primary stage to higher education.
Injection of information into young minds has been taking place on a massive scale, but character and personality development has not received the attention it deserves. Creation of the right environment which helps and encourages young minds to resolve personal and moral issues independently is of utmost importance. Although it is not an easy task but it needs to be done at all costs. Since character of people may decide the destiny of a nation, the educational system should develop character, courage, comradeship, discipline, leadership, secular outlook, spirit of adventure and sportsmanship, and ideals of selfless service. Emphasis should be laid on the study of the life of great sons of the soil whose ideas and ideals have moved the world, because such a practice may provide an insight to the younger generation for character development and spiritual sensitivity.
Skill development is the focus area of the government policy. It is central to accessing employment in the formal sector and enhancing productivity in the informal economy for reducing poverty and risk of underemployment.
The National Policy on Skill Development aims to train about 104.62 million people afresh and additional 460 million are to be reskilled, up-skilled and skilled by
Considering that majority of these labour force would be self or casual employed, the challenge is to how to improve the skill levels of these workforce. These categories cut across various target groups or vulnerable sections of the society. The groups are not mutually exclusive and there are overlaps because the workers in the self-employed category are a heterogeneous lot while the casual employed may be intermittently employed and in different unskilled works.
Main Objectives are:-
(i) educate and equip potential and early stage entrepreneurs across India
(ii) connect entrepreneurs to peers, mentors and incubators
(iii) support entrepreneurs through Entrepreneurship Hubs (E-Hubs)
(iv) catalyse a culture shift to encourage entrepreneurship
(v) encourage entrepreneurship among the under-represented groups
(vi) promote entrepreneurship amongst women
(vii) improve ease of doing business
(viii) improve access to finance and
(ix) foster social entrepreneurship and grassroots innovations
The National Council of Higher Education Resources (NCHER) is the nation’s oldest and largest higher education finance trade association. NCHER’s membership includes state, nonprofit, and for-profit higher education service organizations, including lenders, servicers, guaranty agencies, collection agencies, financial literacy providers, and schools, interested and involved in increasing college access and success. It assists its members in shaping policies governing federal and private student loan and state grant programs on behalf of students, parents, borrowers, and families.
NCHER represents its members on public policy initiatives within the legislative and executive branches of the federal government, and brings together the higher education community to strengthen all federal and private student loan and state grant programs through its ongoing involvement with Congress, the U.S. Department of Education, the U.S. Department of Treasury, the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau, the Federal Communications Commission, and other federal agencies, associations, and organizations engaged in student financing and policy.
The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) is an autonomous organisation set up in 1961 by the Government of India to assist and advise the Central and State Governments on policies and programmes for qualitative improvement in school education. The major objectives of NCERT and its constituent units are to: undertake, promote and coordinate research in areas related to school education; prepare and publish model textbooks, supplementary material, newsletters, journals and develops educational kits, multimedia digital materials, etc. organise pre-service and in-service training of teachers; develop and disseminate innovative educational techniques and practices;collaborate and network with state educational departments, universities, NGOs and other educational institutions; act as a clearing house for ideas and information in matters related to school education; and act as a nodal agency for achieving the goals of Universalisation of Elementary Education. In addition to research, development, training, extension, publication and dissemination activities, NCERT is an implementation agency for bilateral cultural exchange programmes with other countries in the field of school education. The NCERT also interacts and works in collaboration with the international organisations, visiting foreign delegations and offers various training facilities to educational personnel from developing countries.
The National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration (NIEPA), (Deemed to be University) established by the Ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India, is a premier organization dealing with capacity building and research in planning and management of education not only in India but also in South Asia.
The UGC was established in November 1956 at Delhi as a statutory body of the Government of India through an Act of Parliament for the coordination, determination and maintenance of standards of university education in India. In order to ensure effective region-wise coverage throughout the country, the UGC has decentralised its operations by setting up six regional centres at Pune, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Bhopal, Guwahati and Bangalore.
Education, education infrastructure and education policy of Madhya Pradesh
Like in most other states across India, Madhya Pradesh also follows the 10+2+3 tier of education. There is government as well as private education institutes across this Central Indian state. Hindi is the preferred medium of instruction in the government monitored schools and colleges of Madhya Pradesh. English is used as the language of communication between students and teachers in private institutes. The division of education in Madhya Pradesh can be explained through the following chart:
- Primary Schooling
- Secondary Schooling
- College Education
- University Studies
- Research Programs / Professional Degrees and Diplomas
The State literacy rate presently is 70.63% (source: Census 2011), against the national literacy rate of 74.04 %. While the female literacy has considerably improved over the last decade, a great disparity persists in the literacy rates of males and females.
The School education in Madhya Pradesh primarily organized in two sectors: Elementary (I to VIII) and Secondary (IX to XII). Each of these two sectors are further sub-divided into two sub-sector where elementary education consists of primary education (I to V) and upper primary education (VI to VIII) while the secondary education comprises of Middle education (IX and X) and higher secondary education (XI and XII).
Elementary level School facilities in Madhya Pradesh
Management Type Numbers
Government Primary schools 83412
Aided Primary schools (Private) 852
Unaided Primary schools (Private) 12533
Total Primary 96797
Government Upper Primary schools 29282
Aided Upper Primary schools (Private) 410
Unaided Upper Primary schools (Private) 20040
Total Upper Primary 49732
Secondary and Higher Secondary schools
There are four main types of recognized schools by management and funding pattern in Madhya Pradesh. They are: Government, Local Body, Private Aided and Private Unaided.Out of the total Government schools in Madhya Pradesh, majority are managed by School Education Department. Tribal Welfare Department also manages a significant number of schools.
The distribution of secondary schools between categories shows that out of the total schools about 46.29% have only secondary classes and 53.71% have secondary and higher secondary classes both.
Access to secondary schooling facilities: 72% habitations have high schooling facility within 5 KM radius. But still 28% habitations do not have facility within the norm. Urban area 100% access is available but in rural area 31% habitations don’t have facility within the norms.
Various policies and schemes
Mid Day Meal Scheme
In the year 1995-96 Mid Day Meal Scheme was introduced in the government and aided primary schools of 297 blocks in the state. The school provides food to children. In the year 1997-98, the scheme was implemented in all the blocks of the state. In tribal regions the scheme provides prepared food and in non-tribal regions from September 1997 onwards the scheme of providing prepared food is stopped and now 3 kg. food is distributed for every child every month.
For the welfare of minorities the Government of India launched Madarasa Modernization scheme. 102 Madarasas are assisted under this scheme. Rs. 36.18 Lakhs were disbursed for construction of Madarasas. 1100 posts of order Teachers were sanctioned in the year 1996-97 and post of 1000 “Urdu teachers” were sanctioned in the year 1997-98.
The scheme provides free books to the students of class I to IV belonging to SC, ST and OBC category. This scheme of free books is for all girls up to class III and also for the boys of upto III class of families living below the poverty line. Books for the scheme are provided by Madhya Pradesh Text Book Corporation. In the year 1998-97 an amount of Rs. 4.00 crore was provided in the budget of school education for this purpose.
Shishu Shiksha Scheme
Primary Education Mission concentrates on pre-school education of children. To make the children aware about school atmosphere and to develop the habits of learning among children of 3 to 5 years age, the state runs 4056 shishu shiksha kendras.
Education Guarantee Scheme
On January 1, 1997, the Government of Madhya Pradesh pioneered a community centred and rights-based initiative to universalise primary education called ‘Education Guarantee Scheme’ (EGS). Under the scheme, the government guaranteed provision of a teacher, her/his salaries, training of teacher, teachinglearning material and contingencies to start a school within 90 days wherever there was a demand from a community without a primary schooling facility within 1 km. provided this demand came from at least 25 learners in case of tribal areas and 40 learners in case of non-tribal areas. The community that made the demand could also suggest the name of a suitable local resident to be the teacher and be called ‘guruji’. The gram panchayat is empowered to appoint such a “guruji” after the chief executive officer of the Janpad (block) panchayat had verified the bona fides of the demand and the qualifications of the proposed guruji. The training of the guruji would be organised by the district administration which would also credit the amount of annual salaries upfront in the gram panchayat’s bank account.
Rajiv Gandhi Prathmik Shiksha Mission
The Rajiv Gandhi Prathmik Shiksha Mission was set up as an autonomous registered society headed by the Chief Minister of the state to supplement the state government’s efforts to universalize primary education in Madhya Pradesh. The main challenges for the Mission were posed in the form of inadequate outreach of educational facilities specially in the interior, rural or tribal areas, marginalisation of economically or socially deprived children, insufficient support to academic processes and above all a delivery hierarchy that did not factor in the perceptions of its large user community. These challenges influenced the way that defined its objectives, processes and tasks. The objectives of the Mission were to create a positive environment for education, increase enrolment and to improve the quality of teaching-learning processes so as to promote retention and achievement levels.KPSC Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for KPSC Prelims and KPSC Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by KPSC Notes are as follows:-
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