PAPER – II General Studies 1- History and Cultural Heritage (India & Karnataka ),Social and Political Perspective and Indian Economy – Planning- Rural Development

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Section – I : History and Cultural Heritage (Indiaand Karnataka ) – (6 Units)

Unit 1: Cultural Heritage of India (select areas and topics)

(i) Indus Civilization Distinction between Indus Civilization and Vedic Civilization Evolution of Varna, Jathi/caste systemReligious condition –emergence of religious movements.

[sociallocker id=”7955″] (ii) Literature: Sanskrit Literature (Ancient) : Vedic Literature, the epics and the Puranas: their impact on the life and culture of the Indian People; Prose works on polity, ethics (neeti), popular stories and Pancha Tantra (only important works); Mughal contributions to literature.

(iii) Science and Technology: Mathematics, Astronomy, Physics, Chemistry, Botany, Zoology, Physiology and Medicine (including Surgery), Ship- building, Mining and Metallurgy, Engineering and Architecture.

(iv) Arts (Excluding Karnataka): The Maurya and Gupta periods; The Khajuraho temples; Jain temples at Mount Abu and the Odishyan temples; Pallava,Chola and Pandyan contributions. The Mughal architecture; Cathedral architecture: Bom Jesus-Old Goa, St. Paul’s- Kolkata and St. Thomas-Chennai. Painting : Ajanta frescoes; Mughal schools of painting and Rajput schools of painting. Dance and Music: Classical music and dance; Mughal contributions to music. Folk arts of India.

(v) India’s cultural contributions to the outside world: Central Asia, China, Japan, South-East Asia and Sri Lanka.

(vi) Religions of India-

(i) Hindu Dharma: General characteristics and some common beliefs – Purusharthas– rituals and ethics – festivals and sacred days – pilgrimage and fairs. Hindu sects: Hinduism as a federation of various sects – Shaiva, Vaishnava and Shakta. Philosophy of the Upanishad and the BhagavadGita –Yoga Philosophy of Pathanjali.

(ii) Jainism: Principles – Ratnatraya, code of morals, Equality (samana), Ahimsa,. Sects: Digambara and Swethambara.

(iii) Buddhism: Principles – Four noble truths, The Eight – fold path, Nirvana, Moral doctrines. Sects: Hinayana and Mahayana

(iv) Christianity: Teachings of Jesus Christ. Christian doctrines and theology. Groups in Christianity – The Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern orthodox churches and the Protestants churches. Missionary activities in India

(v) Islam: Principles and practices – God, Confession of Faith, Five “Pillars of Islam”, sacred places and days, the family system and the shariah, ,Sects: Shia and Sunni ,Sufis of Karnataka

(vi) Sikhism: Principles and practices and its Evolution.

Section II - Social and Political Perspective - ( 7 units )

1. Post Independent Karnataka – Towards Political Consolidation – Attempts of Successive Governments – Backward Classes and Social Justice –Reports of : Havnur Committee – Venkataswamy Committee – Chinnappa Reddy Committee – Recent Trends – Dalit Movement – Devaraja Urs and Land Reforms. Language Issue: Gokak Movement – Issues and Perspectives. Inter-State Disputes – Boundary Disputes – Mahajan Committee Report and its impact – Water Disputes – Farmer’s Movement, Regional Imbalance & Nanjundappa committee Report.
2. Social Change and Movements –Social structure and social change, Theories of Social Change, Social Disorganisation and Social movements, directed social change, social policy and social development.
3. Social Change and Modernisation Problems of role conflict– intergenerational gap,youth unrest & commercialization of education, emergence of India as Educational Force changing status of women and social movements, industrialization and urbanization, role of pressure groups, Sanskritisation, westernisation and modernization – Modernism versus traditionalism. Current social evils – fundamentalism and terrorism, Naxalism,Nepotism, corruption, and black money.
4. Government and Political System – Legislature, Executive and Judiciary, functioning of democratic political system in a traditional society, political party and their social composition.
5. Decentralisation of power – Decentralisation of power and political participation. Union Government, Parliament, Cabinet, Supreme court, Judicial review, Center-State relations, State government, role of Governor, Panchayathi raj, class and caste in Indian politics, politics of regionalism, linguism, and communalism. Problems of secularisation policy and national integration, Political participation & voting, vote bank politics.
6. Socio Economic System – The Jajmani system and its bearing on traditional society. Market Economy and its social consequences, Occupational diversification and social structure,Profession and professionalisation, role of trade unions,social determinants and consequence of economical development, economic inequalities, exploitation and corruption, Globalisation and its social impact.
7. Rural Social system and Rural Development – Socio cultural dimensions of village community, traditional power structure, democratization and leadership, poverty, indebtedness, bonded labour, social consequences of land reforms, Rural development projects, green revolution, new strategies of rural development, the changing rural scene.

Section III – Indian Economy – Planning- Rural Development (8 units)

1. Indian Economy – Post independence growthexperience of agriculture, industry and tertiary sectors, growth and distributive justice. Poverty and  inequality, Growth of Karnataka Economy during the plan era, growth and sectoral changes and linkages in the State Economy.
2. India and International economic relations– Growth and trade – volume, composition and direction of exports and imports, domestic and foreign capital in economic development, changes in India’s foreign trade policy, balance of payments and foreign exchange. Karnataka’s exports – volume, composition, and direction.
3. Development patterns and disparities among regions and between rural and urban areas, public policies to mitigate disparities, prospects and problems of Special economic zones. Development disparities in Karnataka and public policies, Redressel of development disparities. Regional development boards.
4. Planning – Planning goals, objectives and approaches, achievements and failures of five year plans (I to VII Five year plans). Development plans under the new economic policies regime (VIII Five year plan onwards). Planning in Karnataka.
5. Decentralization – pros and cons of top-down planning and bottom-up planning, planning mechanism and experience in Panchayathi raj institutions, planning and capacity building, planning and financing. Decentralized planning in Karnataka, Resource mobilization and devolution.District Planning Committee, State finances and local finances. State finance commission.
6. Rural Development – Importance of agriculture in the national economy, Gandhian approach to rural development and land reforms, size of farms and productivity, problems of irrigation and dry land farming, food security, rural credit, agricultural marketing, agricultural labour, rural industries and employment. Agricultural problems in Karnataka, Rural Economic infrastructure (Energy, Irrigation, Transport, Communication, Markets), Rural Social Infrastructure – Housing, Drinking water,Sanitation & Drainage, Rural Health systems and their delivery. Development of Economic and Social infrastructure in Karnataka, Rural markets in Karnataka. Rural housingand health care schemes in Karnataka.
7. Rural Development Initiatives – Poverty Alleviation-cum-Employment generation Programmes,Five Year Plan and inclusive growth, rural financial institutions,Development and conservation of common property resources in rural areas – village grasslands and woods, water bodies, Provision of urban amenities in rural areas (PURA). Rural Development schemes in Karnataka, self help groups and micro finance institutions in Karnataka, External assistance for rural tank rejuvenation, drinking water,sanitation and health care in Karnataka.
8. Data Collection Analysis- Interpretation- Collection, Interpretation and Appreciation of Statistical Data- Study of Graphs and Charts:– Bar Graphs, Line Graphs and Pie Charts- Problems Based on Tabular and Diagrammatical DataData Sufficiency in StatisticsProblems Based on Probability- Permutations and CombinationsQuantitative Aptitude – Number Sequences, Series, Averages, Number Systems, Ratio and Proportion,

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