PAPER – IV General Studies 3:Science and Technology,Environment & Ecology


Section-I, Role and Impact of Science and Technology in Development of Indian,
Information Technology In Public Domain

1. Basics of Science and Technology.

Classical and emerging areas of science and Technology (S&T)- Value Addition by Science & Technology- Current Science & Technology developments in India and Importance of Science & Technology as an engine for national development- Industrial development & UrbanizationNational policy of Science & Technology ; changes in policy from time to time ; Technology missions- ICT: Basics Computers, Communication, Telephone and Television- Broadband, Internet, & Web-IT industries, BPO, economic & employment growth- E-governance, E-commerce & E-learning- IT& Rural applications, Digital divide & its preventionComputers in Mass Media.

2.SPACE Science and Technology

A brief history of global space programmes, and current space programmes.
Space programme in India- INSAT, IRS systems, EDUSAT, and Chandrayana 1, Etc., and future programme.
Application of Space technology in India with special references to Educational, Agricultural and Other Rural Developmental Activities.

3. Energy Resources

Indian Energy scenario Hydel, Thermal, Nuclear, & Renewable; their potential, harnessing & options.
Importance of renewable resources Solar, Wind, Small/ Mini/ Micro Hydel, Biomass, Waste based, Geothermal, Tidal, Hydrogen & Fuel cells.
Enabling legislations, financial and procedural incentives, and business opportunities for investors.

4. Disasters, Pests and Pollution

Climatic Change – floods, cyclone, tsunami, natural and manmade disasters and disaster management.

Crop Science in India, Fertilizers, Control of Pests and Crop Diseases.

Safe Drinking water & supply.

Sanitation and Waste disposal

Urbanization, Industrialization, and Pollution control.

5. Related Perceptions

Universalizing Science and Technology literacy;

Technology with a Human Face
Human Development Index (HDI)Karnataka HDI

Contribution to Growth of GDP

Facing Global competition

 Preservation & promotion of culture and indigenous knowledge

6. Knowledge Society

Human capital, its power, imparting education, Skill, & Values.

Role of Knowledge for Economic growth, Social development, Cultural enrichment & political empowerment.

Achieving goals around Knowledge: Eradication of poverty; Universal primary education; Gender equality.

7. Rural Upliftment and Science & Technology

Advance Infrastructure in Rural Areas, Establishing Physical, Electronic, Knowledge, & Economic Connectivity.

Regional Language: Usage in ICT

Horticulture: Hybrid seed production with R&D; Set up Fruit and vegetable processing plants, packaging & Marketing.

Agro Food Processing: Forming village clusters and establishing Food Storage,

Food Processing, and Food Packaging & Marketing.

Bio-fuel cultivation and extractionS

Scientific Water harvesting.

Section II: Advancement and Modern Trends in Natural Sciences, Life Sciences, Agricultural Science, Health and Hygiene -(7 Units)

1. Natural Science
Plants – crop plants, forest species, medicinal and aromatic plants, usefulness of plants and human affairs (utility), photosynthesis, transpiration, harmful plants. Common classification of animals – domestic and wild animals. Usefulness of animals and human affairs (utility).

Microorganisms: Common bacteria, virus, fungi and their beneficial and harmful effect on mankind.

2. Agriculture Science

 Agriculture scenario and importance of agriculture in the national and state Crop production and protection. Chemical Fertilizers and Vermi compost. Cost benefit and investment analysis of agricultural enterprises.
Programmes for production and productivity enhancement – green, white, yellow, blue Recent trends in organic farming and farm mechanization. Farming systems and sustainability. Agro-processing and agro-based industries.
Post harvest technology and value addition. Management of land and water resources.

3. Horticulture and Sericulture

Importance of Horticulture floriculture, vegetables, fruits, plantation crops, spices, aromatic and medicinal plants. Hi- tech horticulture (green / poly house cultivation). Post-harvest management and value addition.

Special promotional programmes for horticulture development.

Sericulture: Importance of sericulture in India and Karnataka, distribution of mulberry and non-mulberry sericulture (area, production and productivity across states), cocoon production.

4. Initiatives in Biotechnology

Concept of biotechnology, introduction and application of genetic engineering and stem cells research. Molecular breeding and marker assisted selection. Transgenic plants (genetically modified) and their beneficial and harmful effects on environment and Biotechnology in agriculture (bio-fertilizers, bio-pesticides, bio-fuels, tissue culture, cloning).
Food bio technology, food safety and microbial standards, food quality standards, food laws and regulations.

5. Animal Husbandry (veterinary, dairy and fishery sciences)

Importance of livestock in the national and state economy. Important exotic and Indian breeds of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, swine and poultry.
Milk production management and dairy Milk Cooperative Unions and their role in rural economy- AMUL, KMF.
Fisheries resources in India Marine fisheries resources and potential, exclusive economic zone of India, coastal aquaculture and Mari Inland water resources, commercially important fishes, responsible fishing. Ornamental fish production. Value addition of livestock products and quality control.

6. Agriculture development policies, programmes and trade

Sailent Features of National and Karnataka state agricultural policies, Agriculture Price Policy, National Seed Policy,Agricultural Credit Policy, National Agricultural Research System (NARS).
 Farmers welfare programmes in India, Farm women development programmes, Agriculture under Five Year Plans, Development / strengthening of agricultural marketing infrastructure-Grading and Standardization, Crop Insurance Scheme- National Agricultural Insurance Scheme (NAIS), Weather Based Crop Insurance Scheme (WBCIS), Food Security, National Watershed Development Programme, Export potential of agriculture-horticulture-livestock
 Commercialization and globalization of agriculture WTO, AoA (Agreement on Agriculture).

7. Health and Hygiene

Human – Digestive, circulatory, respiratory, excretory and reproductive systems. Allopathic, Indian System of Medicine, Naturopathy and Yoga (AYUSH), NRHM, National HIV Programme, Tuberculosis programme, P and SM (Preventive and Social Medicine), Diseases – Communicable diseases,endemic diseases, epidemic diseasesvector borne diseases.
Basic knowledge of infections caused by different groups of microorganisms – Gastroenteritis, cholera, tuberculosis, malaria, viral infections, HIV, encephalitis, chikungunya, bird flu, dengue, preventive measures during out breaks.
Vaccines, introduction to immunity, production of DPT and rabies vaccine and hepatitis

 Application of immunological methods in diagnosis. Health awareness Programme, Etc.,

Section – III Challenges and Issues of Development on Environment & Ecology (6 units)

1. Environmental Segments:

Promotion and protection –forest conservation and
Protection of Wild Life, Project Tiger, National parks and Sanctuaries, Impact of mining on forest and environment. Red Data Book: Endangered species, Eco Tourism and any other related current issues.

2. Natural Resources:

Forest – Types and conservation of forest and forest resources. Water resources- flood and drought occurrences, water resource management, Land resources. Rain water harvesting, Infrastructure development – Dams, Roads, Rails, Bridges, Industry,urbanization and waste water management, acquisition and rehabilitation and other issues due to human interventions and any other related current issues.

3. Eco System and Biodiversity

Ecology – Basic concepts of ecology, Eco System, Food Chain, Biodiversity and its conservation, Hot spots of Biodiversity, threats to diversity, forest sustainable development and management, any other related current issues, IPR.

4. Environment Pollution and Solid Waste Management:

Air Pollution, Water pollution, Soil Pollution, Noise Pollution and remedies. Solid waste Management- Types of Solid waste management, factors affecting the solid waste generation, Impact of solid waste, Recycling and reuse. Any other related Current issues. Environment protection Act, Air (prevention and control of pollution), water (prevention and control of pollution), water pollution Cess Act.

5. Role of Information Technology in Environment and Human Health:

Global Environmental issues like Climate change, acid rains, global warming, wasteland reclamation, watershed management, watershed approach for sustainable development, linking of rivers, water crisis. Any other related current issues.

6. State community-civil society interface, Joint forest management system:

community participation, Development, Displacement and Rehabilitation. Disaster Management, Sustainable Forest Development. Flood, earthquake, drought, tsunami, Global warming – Ozone layer, CFC, carbon credit.

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