Three Geological divisions:

  1. The peninsular block
  2. The Himalayas and other Peninsular Mountains
  3. Indo-Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain


  • Peninsualar block is made of gneisses (metamorphic) and granites (igneous).

Six physiographic divisions:

  1. The Northern and North-eastern Mountains
  2. The Northern Plain
  3. The Peninsular Plateau
  4. The Indian Desert
  5. The Coastal Plains
  6. The Islands

Northern and North-Eastern Mountains

Approximate length of the Great Himalayan range: 2500 KM. Width: 160-400 KM

Impact of Himalayas on the climate of India?

It can be divided into five sub-divisions:

  1. Kashmir (or Northwestern) Himalayas
  2. Himachal and Uttaranchal Himalayas
  3. Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas
  4. Arunachal Himalayas
  5. Eastern Hills and Mountains

Kashmir Himalayas

  • Ranges: Karakoram, Ladhakh, Zaskar, Pir Pinjal
  • Glaciers: Baltoro, Siachen
  • Passes: Zoji La (Great Himalayas), Banihal (Pir Pinjal), Photu La (Zaskar) and Khardung La (Ladakh)
  • Lakes: (freshwater) Dal and Wular; (saltwater) Pangong Tso and Tso Moriri
  • Pilgrimage: Vaishno Devi, Amarnath Cave, Charar-e-Sharif
  • They are also famous for Karewa formations which are useful for the cultivation of Zafran (a local variety of Saffron). Karewas are the thick deposits of glacial clay and other materials embedded with moraines.
  • Kashmir is located on the banks of Jhelum river.
  • Meanders is a typical feature associated with the rivers in this region.
  • In South, there are longitudinal valleys called duns; Jammu dun and Pathankot dun


Himachal and Uttarakhand Himalayas

  • Lies between rivers Ravi and Kali
  • Drained by two major river systems: Indus and Ganga
  • Northernmost part is an extension of the Ladakh desert, lies in Spiti.
  • Ranges: Great Himalayan Range, Lesser Himalayas (Dhaoladhar in HP and Nagtibha in Uttarakhand), Shivalik range
  • Pilgrimage: Gangotri, Yamunotri, Kedarnath, Badrinath, Hemkund Sahib and the five famous prayags (Refer to Panch Prayag)
  • Famous for hill stations: Dharamshala, Mussoorie, Shimla, Kaosani; Cantt.: Kasauli, Almora, Lansdowne, Ranikhet
  • The important distinguishing features of this area are the ‘Shivalik’ and ‘Dun formations’.
  • Important duns: Chandigarh-Kalka, Nalagarh, Dehra, Harike, Kota
  • Dehradun is the largest of all duns: Length – 35-45 KM, Width: 22-25 KM
  • Inhabited with the Bhotia They migrate to higher reaches (Bugyals) in summer and return to the valleys during winters.


Darjeeling and Sikkim Himalayas

  • Between Nepal Himalayas and Bhutan Himalayas.
  • Fast flowing rivers such as Tista
  • Peaks: Kanchenjunga
  • Tribe: Lepcha
  • Has a mixed population of Nepalis, Bengalis and tribals from Central India.
  • Importance: Due to the moderate slope, it is best suited for tea plantations. <India produces about 26 pc of tea in the world; second after China. Also, accounts for 12 pc of tea exports; fourth in the world.>
  • Duar formations are peculiar to this region.


Arunachal Himalayas

  • From Bhutan Himalayas to Diphu pass in the east.
  • Direction: Southwest to Northeast
  • Peaks: Kangtu and Namya Barwa
  • Rivers: Brahmaputra, Kameng, Subansiri, Dihang, Dibang and Lohit.
  • These rivers are perennial and have the highest hydro-electric power potential in the country.
  • Tribes: Monpa, Daffla, Abor, Mishmi, Nishi and Nagas
  • These communities practice shifting cultivation known as Jhumming.


Eastern Hills and Mountains

  • Direction: North to South
  • Ranges: Patkai Bum, Naga hills, Manipur hills, Mizo or Lushai hills
  • These are low hills
  • Tribes practice Jhum cultivation
  • Rivers: Barak. Most of the Nagaland rivers form a tributary of Brahmaputra. Rivers in eastern Manipur are the tributaries of Chindwin, which in turn is a tributary of the Irrawady of Myanmar.
  • Lake: Loktak
  • Loktak Lake: is an important lake in Manipur which is surrounded by mountains on all sides. It is the largest freshwater lake in northeastern India. Also called the only Floating Lake in the world due to floating masses of organic matter on it. It serves as a source for hydropower generation, irrigation and drinking water supply.
  • Keibul Kamjao National Park located in the Bishnupur district of Manipur is the only floating park in the world and is an integral part of the Loktak Lake. Home to the endangered Manipur Eld’s Deer or Brow-antlered Deer or Sangai or Dancing Deer.
  • Mizoram is also known as the ‘Molassis basin’ which is made up of soft unconsolidated deposits.

The Northern Plains

  • Formed by the alluvial deposits of rivers – Indus, Ganga and Brahmaputra.
  • Length: 3200 KM; Width: 150-300 KM

Three main zones:

  1. Bhabar
  2. Tarai
  3. Alluvial Plains (Khadar and Bangar)


  • Narrow belt. 8-10 KM wide.
  • Paralllel to Shivalik at the break-up of the slope. Hence, streams and rivers deposit heavy rocks (and at times disappear) in this zone.


  • South of Bhabar. 10-20 KM wide.
  • Rivers re-emerge and create marshy and swampy conditions known as Tarai.

Alluvial Belt

  • South of Tarai.
  • Features of mature stage of fluvial erosional and depositional landforms such as sand bars, meanders, ox-bow lakes and braided channels. Riverine islands in Brahmaputra.
  • Brahmaputra takes a turn an almost 90 degree turn at Dhubri (Assam) before entering Bangladesh.


Peninsular Plateau

  • Bounded by the Delhi ridge, Rajmahal Hills, Gir range and Cardamom hills.
  • Made up of a series of patland plateaus: Hazaribagh, Palamu, Ranchi, Malwa, Coimbatore, Karnataka etc.
  • One of the oldest and most stable landmass of India.
  • Physiographic Features: Tors, block mountains, rift valleys, spurs, bare rocky structures, hummocky hills and quartzite dykes offering natural sites for water storage.
  • Black soil in western and northwestern parts.
  • Bhima fault in this region has frequent seismic activity (Lathur earthquake)
  • NW part also has ravines and gorges: Chambal, Bhind and Morena.

Three broad regions:

  1. Deccan Plateau
  2. Central Highlands
  3. Northwestern Plateau

Deccan Plateau

  • Bordered by Eastern Ghats, Satpura, Maikal range and Mahadeo hills
  • Important ranges: WG: Sahyadri, Nilgiri, Anaimalai and Caradamom hills; EG: Javadi hills, Palconda range, Nallamala Hills, Mahendragiri hills
  • EG and WG meet at Nilgiri hills.
  • Highest peak: Anaimudi (2695 m) on Anaimalai hills; Dodabetta (2637 m) on Nilgiri hills.
  • Rivers: Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri etc.

Central Highlands

  • Bounded by the Aravali and Satpura range.
  • Relic mountains, highly denuded and form discontinuous ranges.
  • Near Jaisalmer it is covered by the longitudinal sand ridges and crescent-shaped sand dunes called barchans.
  • Elevation: 700-1000 m
  • Banas, a tributary of Chambal, originates in the Aravalli. Other tributaries of Yamuna originate from the Vindhyan and Kaimur ranges.
  • Minerals in Chotanagpur plateau.


Northeastern Plateau

  • Extension of the main Peninsular plateau.
  • Meghalaya and Karbi Anglong plateau.
  • Megahalaya plateau: Garo hills, Khasi hills and Jaintia hills (named after the tribals inhabiting the region)
  • Rich in minerals like coal, iron, sillimanite, limestone and uranium.
  • Receives maximum rainfall from SW monsoon. Hence, Meghalaya plateau has a highly eroded surface. Cherrapuni and Myswarnam.


Indian Desert

  • Aka Marusthali
  • Northwest of the Aravali hills
  • Dotted with longitudinal dunes and barchans.
  • Low rainfall: >150 mm per year Low vegetation cover
  • Evidence that this area was under the sea during the Mesozoic era.
  • Features: mushroom rocks, shifting dunes and oasis.
  • Rivers are ephemeral: Luni. Brackish lakes. Inland drainage.


Coastal Plains

Two divisions:

  1. Western coastal plains
  2. Eastern Coastal Plains

Western Coastal Plains

  • Submerged coastal plain. Hence, a narrow belt. Narrow in middle and broader towards north and south.
  • Ports: Provides natural conditions for the development of ports and harbours due to submergence. Kandla, Mazagaon (Mumbai), JLN port Navha Sheva, Maramagao, Mangalore, Cochin etc.
  • Mumbai has the world’s largest natural harbour.
  • May be divided into: Kachchh and Kathiawar coast in Gujarat, Konkan coast, Goan coast and Malabar coast.
  • Rivers don’t form delta.
  • Kayals (Backwaters): Found in the Malabar coast. Used for fishing and inland navigation. Every year Nehru Trophy Vallamkali (boat race) is held in Punnamada Kayal in Kerala.


Eastern Coastal Plains

  • Broader
  • Emergent coast. Hence, less number of ports and harbours. Chennai, Vizag, Paradwip, Haldia.
  • Delta formation

The Islands

Two major Divisions:

  1. Andaman and Nicobar
  2. Lakshwadeep & Minicoy


Andaman and Nicobar

  • Two major island groups: Ritchie’s archipelago and the Labrynth island.
  • The group is divided into: Andaman in the North and Nicobar in the South.
  • Andaman and Nicobar separated by the Ten Degree channel.
  • Barren Island
  • Peaks: Saddle Peak (N.Andaman – 738 m), Mt. Diavolo (Middle Andaman – 515 m), Mt. Koyob (S Andaman – 460 m) and Mt. Thuiller (Great Nicobar – 642 m)
  • Coral deposits found
  • Convectional rainfalls and equatorial type of vegetation.

Lakshadweep and Minicoy

  • Entire group built of coral deposits.
  • Total of 36 islands of which 11 are inhabited.
  • Smallest UT
  • Minicoy is the largest island
  • Separated by the 9 Degree Channel, north of which is the Amini Island and to the south Canannore island.
  • These islands have storm beaches consisting of unconsolidated pebbles, shingles, cobbles and boulders.



Types of soil

1.Alluvial Soils22Most fertile, Sandy loam in texture,
Rich in Potash, Phosphoric Acid, Lime & Organic matter
Deficient in Nitrogen & Humus
2.Regur/Black Soils30Also classified as Chernozem. Clay content 50%
Rich in iron, lime & Aluminium
Poor in Nitrogen, Phosphorus & organic content
3.Red & Yellow Soils28Known as omnibus group.
Rich in oxides of iron
Poor in Nitrogen, Phosphorus & Humus
4.Laterite Soils2.62Not very fertile. Typical of tropical region with heavy rainfall
Rich in iron oxide & potash
Poor in nitrogen, phosphate & calcium
5.Arid Soils6.13Rich in phosphate
Poor in Nitrogen & humus
6.Saline Soils1.29Known as Usara, Reh or Kallar
Contain a large proportion of Sodium, Potassium & Magnesium
Poor in Nitrogen & Calcium
7.Peaty & Organic2.17Normally heavy & black in colour. Highly acidic.
Rich in organic matter
Poor in phosphate & potash
8.Forest Soils7.94Acidic with low humus content
Poor in potash, phosphorus & lime
1.Bolton of the eastAhmedabad
2.Manchester of South IndiaCoimbatore
3.Granary of South IndiaThanjavur






National Parks of India
1.Wandur National ParkAndaman & Nicobar
2.Kaziranga National ParkAssam
3.Manas National ParkAssam
4.Palamau National ParkJharkhand
5.Hazaribagh National ParkJharkhand (Rhinoceros)
6.Dachigam National ParkJ & K – Kashmir Stag (Hangul)
7.Hemis National ParkJ & K
8.Kishtwar National ParkJ & K
9.Silent Valley National ParkKerala
10.Eravikulam National ParkKerala
11.Bandhavgarh National ParkM.P.
12.Kanha National ParkM.P.
13.Madhav National ParkM.P.
14.Pench National ParkM.P.
15.Shivpuri National ParkM.P. – Birds
16.Indravati National ParkChhattisgarh
17.Keoladeo National ParkRajasthan
18.Ranthambore National ParkRajasthan
19.Desert National ParkRajasthan
20.Sariska National ParkRajasthan
21.Namdapha National ParkArunachal Pradesh
22.Marine National ParkGujarat
23.Pin Valley National ParkHimachal Pradesh








24.Bandipur National ParkKarnataka
25.Nagarhole National ParkKarnataka
26.Bannerghatta National ParkKarnataka
27.Tadoba National ParkMaharashtra
28.Boriveli National ParkMaharashtra (or Sanjay Gandhi National Park)
29.Balpakram National ParkMeghalaya
30.Nokrek National ParkMeghalaya
31.Nandan Kanan National ParkOrissa
32.Chandka Elephant ReserveOrissa
33.Simlipal Tiger ReserveOrissa
34.Corbett National ParkUttaranchal
35.Rajaji National ParkUttaranchal
36.Valley of Flower N. ParkUttaranchal
37.Nandadevi National ParkUttaranchal
38.Dudhwa National ParkU.P.
39.Govind National ParkU.P.


Wildlife Sanctuaries of India

1.Pakhal Wildlife SanctuaryAndhra Pradesh
2.Parambikulam Wildlife SanctuaryTamil Nadu
3.Srisailam Wildlife SanctuaryAndhra Pradesh
4.Garampani Wildlife SanctuaryAssam
5.Kaimur wildlife SanctuaryBihar (largest)
6.Dandeli Wildlife SanctuaryKarnataka
7.Periyar Wildlife sanctuaryKerala
8.National Chambal Wildlife SanctuaryM.P., U.P & Rajasthan
9.Great Indian Bustard SanctuaryMaharashtra (Ahmednagar)
10.Gomardha Wildlife SanctuaryChhattisgarh
11.Harike HeadworksPunjab
12.Jaldapara Wildlife sanctuaryWest Bengal
13.Sultanpur Bird SanctuaryHaryana
14.Raganathittu Wildlife SanctuaryKarnataka
15.Madumalai SanctuaryTamil Nadu
16.Pulicat SanctuaryAndhra Pradesh
17.Chandraprabha Wildlife SanctuaryU.P (Varanasi)
18.Ranganthitoo Bird SancturyKarnataka
19.Vedanthangal Bird SanctuaryTamil Nadu



Breeds of Cattle
1.CowGir, Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Deoni (Andhra Pr.), Nagori, Rathi, Siri, Malvi,
Tharparkar. Exotic breeds – Holstein, Friesian, Jersey, Brown Swiss.
2.BuffaloMurrah, Bhadawari, Nagpuri, Mehsana, Jaffrabadi, Surti, Nali-Ravi.
3.SheepJaisalmeri, Pugal, Bikaneri, Marwari, Kathiawari.
4.GoatsJamnapuri, Barbari


High Yielding Varieties of Seed








1.WheatKalyan Sona, Sonalika, Arjun, Lerma, Sharbati Sonora, WL series.
2.RicePadma, Jaya, IR-8, Hamsa, Krishna, Cauvery, Annapurna
3.MaizeGanga-101, Deccan Hybrid
4.JowarCSV-1 to CSV-7
6.CottonV-797, Hybrid 4,5, Digvijay, Varalaxmi, Sanjay, Deviraj, Virnar.


Roads, Railways & Waterways in India

1.National Highways67700 KmBroad Guage46800 km
2.State Highways137000 KmMeter Guage13000 km
3.District Roads12 Lakh KmNarrow Guage3100 km
4.Village Roads15 Lakh KmTotal Railway guage63200 km
5.Border Roads30,000 KmNo of Trains13500
6.Total Roads33 Lakh KmNo of Stations7100
7.Total Waterways14500 KmElectrified route28%


National Waterways

1.National Waterways-1Allahabad-Haldia stretch of the Ganga-Bhagirathi-Hoogly system
2.National Waterways-2Sadiya-Dhubri stretch of the Brahmaputra system
3.National Waterways-3The west coast canal from Kottapuram to Kollam along with the
Udyogmandal & Champakar canals (All in Kerala).


Indian Railways, Headquarters
1.Nothern RaiwayDelhi
2.Southern RailwayChennai
3.Eastern RaiwayKolkata
4.Western RailwayMumbai (Churchgate)
5.North-Western RailwayJaipur
6.North-Central RailwayAllahabad
7.North-Eastern RailwayGorakhpur
8.North-East Frontier RailwayGuwahati
9.East Coast RailwayBhubaneshwar
10.East Central RailwayHazipur
11.West Central RailwayJabalpur
12.Central RailwayMumbai (V.T)
13.South-Central RailwaySecundarabad
14.South Eastern RailwayKolkata
15.South-Western RailwayBangalore
16.South-East Central RailwayBilaspur
India Pipelines
1.Naharkatiya Oilfield in Assam to Barauni refinery in Bihar via Noonmati – First pipeline
2.Barauni-Kanpur pipeline for transport of refined petroleum
3.Haldia-Maurgram-Rajbandh pipeline
4.Ankleshwar oilfield to Koyali refinery in Gujarat
5.Mumbai High Koyali pipeline
6.Hajira-Bijapur-Jagdishpur (HBJ) pipeline (1750 km). Extended from Bijapur to Dadri in U.P.






7.Kandla to Luni in U.P via Delhi for LPG transport (1250 Km)
Airways-Internatioanal Airports
1.MumbaiChhatrapati Shivaji International Airport (Sahar)
2.DelhiIndira Gandhi International Airport
3.ChennaiAnna International Airport (Meenambakam)
4.KolkataSubhash Chandra Bose International Airport
5.AhmedabadSardar Vallabh Bhai Patel International Airport
6.AmritsarRaja Sansi Airport
7.BangaloreNeedumbassery International Airport
8.GoaDabolim International Airport
9.GuwahatiLokapriya Gopinat Bardoli International Airport
10.HyderabadRajiv Gandhi International Airport
11.ThiruvananthapuramTrivandrum International Airport
12.KochiNedumbassery International Airport.
India’s Foreign Trade
1.Petroleum, Oil, Lubricants (POL)27 %1.Gems & Jewellery17 %
2.Pearls & Precious stones9 %2.Readymade Garments13 %
3.Gold & Silver8.5 %3.Chemicals11 %
4.Capital goods12 %4.Cotton Textile8 %
5.Electronic goods9 %5.Machine & Transport6 %
6.Chemicals7 %6.Agricultural Exports13.5 %
7.Edible Oils3 %7.
8.Coke, Coal & briquettes2 %8.

Fish & Fish products lead agricultural exports accounting for 3.1 % of the total value.

India’s major trading partners

1.USA11.6 %
2.UAE5.0 %
3.China5 .0%
4.UK4.4 %
5.Belgium4.1 %
6.Germany3.9 %
7.Japan3.1 %
8.Switzerland2.7 %
9.Hongkong3.4 %
10.Singapore3.0 %



Cities located on Rivers









TiruchirapalliCauveryTamil Nadu


Industries of India
1.Iron & SteelIISCO has 3 plants at Kulti, Hirapur & Burnpur. Visvesvaraya Iron & Steel
Co is located on the bank of Bhadravati river in Karnataka.
Hindustan Steel Limited (HSL) at Bhilai, Durgapur & Bokaro.
2.Cotton Textile4% of GDP. 3.5 Crore population employed.
3.Sugar Industry
4.AluminumHINDALCO (Renukoot), INDAL (Alupuram, Hirakud, Belgaum), Madras
IndustryAluminium Company (MALCO, Mettur), BALCO (Korba), NALCO
5.Copper SmeltingHCL is the main player & operates Khetri copper complex, Indian copper
complex (Ghatsila, Jharkhand), Malanjkhand copper project (Balghat,
M.P.), Taloja copper project (Raigad, Maharashtra).
6.Jute TextileCenters are Titagarh, budge-budge, Haora, Rishra, Serampore,
Bhadreshware, Shyamnagar.
7.Silk TextileIts varieties are Mulberry (88%), Eri (9%), Tassar (2%), Muga (1%)
8.Woolen TextilePunjab, Maharashtra & U.P account for 75% production. Dhariwal is most
important centre. Others are Amritsar, Ludhiana, Kharar.
9.Heavy IndustryHeavy Engineering Corp Ltd (Ranchi), Tungabhadra Steel Products Ltd
(Karnataka), Bharat heavy plates & Vessels (Vishakhapatnam)
Mining & allied machinery corporation (Durgapur).
10.Machine ToolsHMT (Bangalore, Pinjore in Haryana, Kalamassery in Kerala, Hyderabad,
Ajmer & Sri Nagar), Heavy Machine Tools (Ranchi), Machine Tools Corp
of India (Ajmer), National Instruments Factory at Kolkata.
11.AutomobilesTELCO in Mumbai, Ashok Leyland in Chennai, Bajaj Tempo (Pune).
Defense vehicles are produced at Jabalpur.
12.PesticidesHindustan Insecticides Ltd (Delhi, Kerala & Rasayani, Maharashtra)
Hindustan Organic Chemicals Ltd (Rasayani, Raigad & Kochi)
13.Cement IndustryTop manufacturing states are M.P, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pr & Raj. Jamul
is largest plant of M.P. & Sawai Madhopur leads in Rajasthan
14.Leather IndustryIndia is 3rd largest player after Italy & U.S.








15.Glass IndustryBahjoi & Naini (Both in U.P.) are famous for glass sheets & Firozabad for
16.Paper IndustryRajmundhry (Andhra Pr), Ballarpur (Maharshtra), Titagarh (Bengal)
Bhadravati, Dandeli (Karnataka), Hoshangabad (M.P)
17.Liquor IndustryU.P. has more than 50% installed capacity. Maharashtra, A.P are others.
18.Aircraft industryImportant centres are HAL-Bangalore, Lucknow, Hyderabad, Others are
Koraput (Orissa) & Nasik.
19.RailwayChittaranjan Locomotive works (Electric engines) – West Bengal
EquipmentsDiesel Locomotive works– Varanasi
Integral Coach Factory– Perambur, Tamil Nadu
Rail Coach Factory– Kapurthala, Punjab.
Diesel Componets Works– Patiala
Railway wheels & Axels– Yalahanka (Banalore) & Durgapur.
20.Ship BuildingHindustan Shipyard (Vishakhapatnam), Garden-Reach Shipbuilders
(Kolkata), Mazagaon Dock (Mumbai), Goa Shipyard (Vasco).
21.PharmaceuticalsIDPL – Rhishikesh, Hyderabad, Gurgaon, Chennai, Muzzafarpur
Hindustan Antibiotics Ltd – Pimpri, Pune – first public sector undertaking
in this industry
22.Zinc & LeadHindustan Zinc Ltd at Debari, Rajasthan (both zinc & lead)
IndustryNational Fertilizers Limited – Nangal
Hindustan Fertilizer Corp Ltd- Namrup (Assam), Durgapur.
Rashtriya Chemicals & Fertilizers Ltd – Trombay, Thal
Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, U.P & Maharashtra are the 4 largest in order.
24.Heavy ElectricalsBHEL (Bhopal, Tiruchirapalli, Ramchandrapuram in A.P, Jammu,
Bangalore, Hardwar). Ms ABL at Durgapur.
Hindustan Cables Factory (Rupnarainpur, Bengal), Indian Telephone
industries (Bangalore), Bharat Electronics (Bangalore),
Electronics corporation of India (Hyderabad)

















Industrial Regions of India
4.Mumbai-Pune rgionTata hydel stations at Khopali, Bhivpuri, Bhira & koyna
Solapur, Satara, Sangli & Ahmednagar
5.Hugli Industrial BeltFrom Naihati to Budge-Budge along left bank & Tribeni to
Nalpur along right bank. Other centres are Serampur, Rishra,
Shibpur, Kakinara, Shamnagar, Titagarh, Sodepur, Bansbaria,
Belgurriah, Triveni, Belur.





6.Bangalore-Tamil NaduPykara project supplies electricity. Salem, Madurai,
Tiruchirapalli, Mettur, Mysore, Mandya.
7.Ahmedabad-VadodaraDhuvaran Thermal power station, Uttaran gas power station,
Ukai hydro project. Koyali, Anand, Khera, Surendranagar,
Rajkot, Surat, Valsad, Jamnagar
8.Chhotanagpur RegionChaibasa, Dhanbad, Sindri, Hazaribagh, Asansol, Durgapur,
Dalmianagar, Ranchi, Daltonganj.
9.Gurgaon Delhi MeerutFaridabad, Modinagar, Ambala, Agra, Mathura
Six Largest National Highways
National HighwayRouteLengh Km
NH 7Varanasi-Kanyakumari2369
NH 6Kolkata & Dhule via Raipur, Nagpur.1932
NH 5Baharagora-Chennai1533
NH 2Delhi-Kolkata1490
NH 8Delhi-Mumbai1428
NH 17Panvel-Edapally (Karnataka)1270
Important National Highways
NH-1Delhi to Amritsar via Ambala & Jallandhar456
NH-1AJallandhar & Uri via Jammu, Srinagar & Baramula
NH 22Ambala to Shipkila on Indo china border460
NH 28 APipra to Nepal border68
NH 35Barasat-Bongaigaon-Indo Bangladesh border61
NH 39Numaligarh-Indo Burma border.436
NH 3Agra to Mumbai via Gwalior
NH 4Chennai with Thane
Important Industrial Centers of India
1.FerozabadGlass Bangles
3.JaipurGems Industry
4.TrivandrumWood Carving
5.KadiMineral Oil







Racial Profile of India
1.NegritosOnly on Andamans & Nicobar
2.Proto-AustraloidIncludes Tribal group of central & southern India. Veddahs,
Maleveddahs, Irulas, Sholgas considere true representative.
3.MongoloidsGaro, Khasi, Jaintia, Lipchas, Chakmas, Murmis, Naga & Dafla
4.MediterraneanDivided into: Palaeo-Mediterranean (or Dravidians) inhabiting





southern parts of India & True Mediterranean inhabiting northern &
western part of the country.
5.BrachycephalsCharacterized by broad heads. Coorgis & Parsis are representative.
They are divided into Alpinoids, Dinarics & Armenoids
6.Nordics/Indo-AryansInhabit parts of north India. They are mostly represented among the
upper castes in northern India esp in Punjab


Demographic Profile of India


S.ParameterTop in ParameterBottom in Parameter
1.PopulationU.P, Maharasthra, Bihar, W.Sikkim, Mizoram, Arunachal
(1027 million)Bengal & Andhra Pr.Pradesh & Goa
Delhi (UTs)Lakshadweep (UT)
2.Population DensityWest Bengal (904), Bihar (880),Arunachal Pr (13), Mizoram,
(324 per/Sq km)Kerala, U.P, Punjab.Sikkim
DelhiAndaman & Nicobar.
3.Popln GrowthNagaland (64%), SikkimKerala (9.4%)
4.Growth Urban populationArunachal PradeshKerala
Dadra & Nagar haveli
5.Growth rural populationNagalandTamil Nadu
6.Proportion of Urban PopulnGoa (50%)Arunachal Pradesh (5%)
Dadra & Nagar Haveli
7.Average size of VillagesKerala (~15000 people)Arunachal (~200)
8.Sex Ratio (933)Kerala (1058)Haryana (861), Punjab &
Daman & Diu
9.Death RateOrissaKerala (6 per thousand)
10.Infant Mortality RateOrissaKerala
11.LiteracyKerala (91%), Mizoram, Goa,Bihar (47%), Jharkhand,
Maharashtra, Himachal PradeshJ&K, Arunachal Pr, U.P.
Lakshadweep (UT)Dadra & Nagar Haveli (UT)







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