What is HGP read? How it is different from HGP write? List down the application of Human genome project?

The Human genome project was a large, international and multi-institutional effort that took 13 years from 1999 and $2.7 billion to produce a blueprint of the sequence of genes and space between  genes that make up a typical human genome. Following were the observation of HGP (read)-

  • 99% of the total human DNA is junk DNA
  • 1% is the only functional gene
  • We have a total 30,000 gene in our genome.

In 2016, a project name HGP write was started whose major function was  to synthesise gene from scratch by the help of bioengineering tools. Following areas of science have taken advantage of human genome project:

Molecular medicine: HGP has made it easy for researchers and doctors to look deeply into the cause of the disease other than symptoms. It will help to treat genetic disease at an embryonic stage by the help of gene therapy, site generated mutagenesis. It will help to create efficient DNA vaccine.

Biotechnology: Mapping of human genome will help to improve the scope of gene therapy and stem cell therapy to treat the diseases. It will also help to improve the production of healthy livestock.

It will help to solve the criminal cases by increasing the scope and efficiency of forensic DNA testing. It will help to solve the paternity dispute.

HGP will help to build the technology to write the genome of microorganism like bacteria. It will help to treat the deadly diseases like malaria, dengue etc.  we can synthesise methane generating microorganism which can address the energy deficiency issues.

Hence, HGP has wide range of application from filed of medicine to industrial sector. It has huge potential in the future which can be utilised to address the problems like deadly diseases(vector borne), energy deficiency, polluted environment.

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