Amendments to the Constitution

  Amendments to the Constitution are made by the Parliament, the procedure for which is laid out in Article 368. An amendment bill must be passed by both the Houses of the Parliament by a tw o-thirds majority and voting. In addition to this, certain amendments which pertain to the federal nature of the Constitution … Read more

Historical Underpinning and Evolution

  Evolution of Indian Constitution Although the systems of ancient India do have their reflections in the Constitutions of India, the direct sources of the Constitution lie in the administrative and legislative developments of the British period.   Regulating Act of 1773 This Act was based on the report of a committee headed by the … Read more

Immunity and Vaccination

Immunity is disease resistance and is of following two types:- Natural or Innate Immunity:- It is present from birth and is inherited from birth by the offspring from the mother.In this form of immunity the response from the organism against the pathogen is immediate in the form of non-specific immune response without the need of recognizing the … Read more

Features, Amendments and Significant provisions of Indian Constitution

Amendments Amendments to the Constitution are made by the Parliament, the procedure for which is laid out in Article 368. An amendment bill must be passed by both the Houses of the Parliament by a two-thirds majority and voting. In addition to this, certain amendments which pertain to the federal nature of the Constitution must … Read more

Basic Structure of Indian Constitution

Basic Structure The basic structure doctrine is an Indian judicial principle that the Constitution of India has certain basic features that cannot be altered or destroyed through amendments by the parliament. Key among these “basic features”, are the fundamental rights granted to individuals by the constitution. The doctrine thus forms the basis of a limited … Read more

Indian Constitution : historical underpinnings

Constitution Constitution is the fundamental law of a country which ordains the fundamental principles on which the government (or the governance) of that country is based. It lays down the framework and principal functions of various organs of the government as well as the modalities of interaction between the government and its citizens. With the … Read more

Fundamental Rights

Fundamental Rights Discrimination not on grounds only of Art 15: religion, race, caste, sex, place of birth Art 16: religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth, residence Reservation First Backward Classes Commission: 1953, Kaka Kalelkar Second BCC: 1979, B P Mandal (by Morarji Desai govt) Article 340 Reasonable Restrictions Speech and Expression: sovereignty and … Read more

Union and State Executive

Governor Same person can be appointed the governor of two or more states Appointed by the President May resign by writing to the President Qualification Citizen of India 35 years of age Art 161: Pardon for any offence against a law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the state extends Constitution … Read more

Constitutional Development & Indian Constitution

Making of the constitution 1934: Idea of constituent assembly put forward by M N Roy 1935: INC officially demands constituent assembly 1938: JL Nehru’s declaration on the constitution of India 1940: Nehru’s demand accepted in the form of August Offer August Offer PM: Winston Churchill While rejecting INCs demand for independence of India after the … Read more

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