India and Its Neighbors

  India has a long land frontier and coastline. It shares boundaries with Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, China, Bangladesh, Myanmar (Burma) and Sri Lanka. India has official political relations with most nations. India is considered as the world’s second most populous and democratic country. Foreign policy of India has always regarded the concept of neighbourhood as … Read more

The Environment (Protection) Act (1986)

The Environment Protection Act is an important legislation that provides for coordination of activities of the various regulatory agencies, creation of authorities with adequate powers for environmental protection, regulation of the discharge of environmental pollutants, handling of hazardous substances, etc. The Act provided an opportunity to extend legal protection to non-forest habitats (‘Ecologically Sensitive Areas’) … Read more

Basic concepts of ecosystem

Eco-System-An ecosystem is defined as a structural and functional unit of biosphere consisting of community of living beings and the physical environment, both interacting and exchanging materials between them. It includes plants, trees, animals, fish, birds, micro-organisms, water, soil, and  people. When an ecosystem is healthy (i.e. sustainable) it means that all the elements live … Read more

Plants and mankind, characteristics of plants, structure and function of plant cells and organelles;

  Objects having characteristics of cellular organization, growth, reproduction, ability to sense environment and give response are living organisms. There are some important features of living organisms: It should grow, which means its structure changes as time goes by in an advantageous manner. It should show adaptation to the environment. It should maintain some balanced … Read more

Types of pollution and their management; air, water, soil, sound/noise, radioactive and e-waste. Industrial waste and its management. Impact of Solid Waste Management, recycling and reuse,

ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION defined as ‘an addition or excessive addition of certain materials to the physical environment (water, air and lands), making it less fit or unfit for life’. Pollutants are the materials or factors, which cause adverse effect on the natural quality of any component of the environment. Classifications 1. According to the form in … Read more

Administrative Reforms in India including various important Commissions and committees.

Why is Administrative Reforms needed? Technological change Advances in industrialisation Growth in the number and complexity of governmental activities Changes in social, political and economic spheres of life All above have created extraordinary strains on the traditional machinery of the government Obsolescence of institutions, roles, procedures and processes in the government What are ways through … Read more

Structure and function of animal cell and cell organelles

  Objects having characteristics of cellular organization, growth, reproduction, ability to sense environment and give response are living organisms. There are some important features of living organisms: It should grow, which means its structure changes as time goes by in an advantageous manner. It should show adaptation to the environment. It should maintain some balanced … Read more

Public Administration and management: Meaning, nature and significance

The English word  administer‘ is derived from a combination of two Latin words and ?ministrate‘ meaning ?to serve or manage‘. Literally, the term means management the affairs of public or private. Administration refers to mobilisation of resources – human and material- to achieve pre-set of objectives. Administration is thus an activity undertaken in pursuit of … Read more

The living world, Cell-Structure and its functions, Diversity of organism

The living world Objects having characteristics of cellular organization, growth, reproduction, ability to sense environment and give response are living organisms. There are some important features of living organisms: It should grow, which means its structure changes as time goes by in an advantageous manner. It should show adaptation to the environment. It should maintain … Read more

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