Sanitation and Water Disposal

Sanitation and Water Disposal The seriousness of the challenges associated with urban water supply and sanitation in India have been recognised in recent times. After decades of neglect, the first national effort to invest in the urban water and sanitation sector commenced in the 1970s, but was accorded considerable priority in the subsequent two decades … Read more

Crop Science in India

Crop Science in India In India around 70% of the population earns its livelihood from agriculture. It fulfills the basic need of human beings and animals. It is an important source of raw material for many agro based industries. India’s geographical condition is unique for agriculture because it provides many favorable conditions. There are plain … Read more

Food web and Food chain

FOOD CHAIN- A food chain starts with producers and ends with top carnivores. The sequence of eaten and being eaten, produces transfer of food energy and it is known as food chain. Grazing food chain-The consumers which start the food chain, utilising the plant or plant part as their food, constitute the grazing food chain. … Read more

Basic concepts of ecosystem

Eco-System-An ecosystem is defined as a structural and functional unit of biosphere consisting of community of living beings and the physical environment, both interacting and exchanging materials between them. It includes plants, trees, animals, fish, birds, micro-organisms, water, soil, and  people. When an ecosystem is healthy (i.e. sustainable) it means that all the elements live … Read more

Types of pollution and their management; air, water, soil, sound/noise, radioactive and e-waste. Industrial waste and its management. Impact of Solid Waste Management, recycling and reuse,

ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION defined as ‘an addition or excessive addition of certain materials to the physical environment (water, air and lands), making it less fit or unfit for life’. Pollutants are the materials or factors, which cause adverse effect on the natural quality of any component of the environment. Classifications 1. According to the form in … Read more

Diversity of organism

  Each organism is different from other organisms. The total number of species living on the planet is imprecisely known and published estimates vary from 12 million to over 100 million. This is because there are large numbers of species yet undiscovered and undescribed, and there is not always agreement on whether certain organisms should … Read more

Karnataka soil

  Eleven groups of soil orders are found in Karnataka Entisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Spodosols, Alfisols, Ultisols, Oxisols, Aridisols, Vertisols, Andisols and Histosols. Depending on the agricultural capability of the soil, the soil types are divided into six types viz., Red, lateritic(lateritic soil is found in bidar and kolar district), black, alluvio-colluvial, forest and coastal soils. The common types of soil groups found in Karnataka are Red soils: Red … Read more

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