Bio molecules – structure and function of carbohydrates, proteins and fats.Vitamins and deficiency diseases, Enzymes, Hormones – Plant hormones and growth regulation.Animal hormones and their functions.

BIOMOLECULES There is vast diversity of living organisms. The chemical compositon and metabolic reactions of the organisms appear to be similar. The composition of living tissues and non-living matter also appear to be similar in qualitative analysis.Closer analysis reveals that the relative abundance of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen is higher in living system.  All forms … Read more

Diversity of organism

  Each organism is different from other organisms. The total number of species living on the planet is imprecisely known and published estimates vary from 12 million to over 100 million. This is because there are large numbers of species yet undiscovered and undescribed, and there is not always agreement on whether certain organisms should … Read more

The living world, Cell-Structure and its functions, Diversity of organism

The living world Objects having characteristics of cellular organization, growth, reproduction, ability to sense environment and give response are living organisms. There are some important features of living organisms: It should grow, which means its structure changes as time goes by in an advantageous manner. It should show adaptation to the environment. It should maintain … Read more

Karnataka soil

  Eleven groups of soil orders are found in Karnataka Entisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, Spodosols, Alfisols, Ultisols, Oxisols, Aridisols, Vertisols, Andisols and Histosols. Depending on the agricultural capability of the soil, the soil types are divided into six types viz., Red, lateritic(lateritic soil is found in bidar and kolar district), black, alluvio-colluvial, forest and coastal soils. The common types of soil groups found in Karnataka are Red soils: Red … Read more


    The state of Karnataka is abundant in mineral resources. It is said to be one of the most mineral rich states of India. The mineral belt covers an area of 1.92 lakh including 29 districts of the state. Karnataka is also endowed with the green stone belt with valuable mineral resources such as gold, silver, copper, iron-ore, manganese, limestone, dolomite, asbestos, … Read more


Karnataka has a well-developed transport system. Bengaluru city has one of the busiest airport in india and well connected with domestic and international flights. It is  also the headquarters of the airlines Air Deccan and Kingfisher Airlines. Roads are the arteries of Karnataka State and many state and National Highways pass through the State. In case of Rail transport … Read more


Karnataka and Power are associated with each other for more than a century. Presently about 2 crore installations are connected with the state grid. karnataka have achieved more than 95% electrification of households and a balance of about 39 remote villages are to be electrified. The power demand of the state is constantly increasing along … Read more

Remote sensing- GIS and its application

    Remote Sensing Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation. In current usage, the term “remote sensing” generally refers to the use of satellite- or aircraft-based sensor technologies to detect and classify objects on Earth, … Read more

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