Physical factors: Terrain, topography, climate, and soil. which determine agriculture

Physical Factors: (a) Terrain, Topography, and Altitude dependent on the geo-ecological conditions; terrain, topography, slope and altitude. paddy cultivation requires leveled fields, tea plantations perform well in the undulating topography in which water does not remain standing. Orchards of coconut are found at low altitudes, preferably closer to the sea level, while the apple orchards … Read more

Harappan art 2500 1800 BC

  • Also known as the bronze age
  • Architecture refers to designing of and construction of buildings where are the sculpture is a three-dimensional work of art
  • In architecture ,various types of materials are used that is a stone , wood, glass, metal  etc .where as sculpture is made of single piece of material.
  • Architecture involves study of engineering And Engineering Mathematics and depends upon measurements, where as sculpture involves creativity and imagination , may not depend on measurements.

I-SEALS

  • Are a square or rectangular or circular or triangular piece of material mainly stone with an average size of 2”x2” .dominantly square seals were found on them ,we find pictographic scripts along with animal Impressions which are yet to be deciphered.
  • Seals are made up of steatite (a river soft stone ) . Evidences of Copper Gold and Ivory seals has also been found in some instances
  • 5 signs or symbols on an average are present on a seal
  • Direction of writing is right to left
  • Seals are decorated with animal motif such as Unicorn bull , rhinoceros ,tiger ,elephant, goat, buffalo, etc (except cow)
  • Inscription of human figure are present on both side of the seals,even in some cases they are present on all 3 sides.

Significance /purpose of seal

  • mainly used as unit of trade and Commerce
  • Also used as amulets for productive and spiritual purpose(mainly Copper),dead bodies found had a hole for wearing them
  • Also used as an educational tool
  • Example Pashupati seals and Unicorn seals

II -Terracotta figures (sculptures)

  • Terracotta are fired baked clay
  • These figures are handmade using punching methods
  • For example mother goddess ,toys cards with wheels, birds and animals etc

III-Bronze sculptures

  • Bronze casting was practised on a wide scale under Harappan art
  • The technique used for Casting is known as “lost wax technique”
  • Under this technique at first wax figures are covered with a coating of clay and allowed to dry. Then it is heated and molten wax is allowed to drain out through a tiny hole at the bottom of the clay cover .the hollow mould is then filled with bronze or any other metal . Once the metal is cooled the clay is removed
  • Evacuations where it was prominent
  1. Kalibangan presently Rajasthan
  2. Daimabad presently Maharashtra
  3. Harappa

Example -Bronze dancing girl

It is a naked girl wearing only ornaments which include bangles , armlets  & necklace the left hand is on the hip. It is made using lost wax technique

Others stone sculpture

  • Bearded priest
  • Male torso (red sandstone)

IV-  POTTERY

  • Red and black pottery(painted pottery)
  • It consists of mainly wheel made wares. Very few are handmade
  • The more common is plain pottery
  • Under red and black pottery red colour was used to paint the background and black colour to draw design of trees, birds, animals, human figures and other geometrical patterns

Uses of pottery

  • For household purpose (storage of water ,food grains )
  • For decoration -miniature vessel used for decoration
  • Used for perforated pottery
  • Large hole at the bottom and small holes all over the wall and was probably used for straining liquor .

V-ORNAMENTS

  • They are made up of a large variety of material ranging from precious metals, gemstones, bone and even baked clay
  • Necklace armlets and finger rings were common and worn by both males and females .while women wore a earings and anklets evidences of dead bodies Burried along with ornaments have also been found.
  • Harrapans were also conscious of fashion ( as different hairstyles ,wearing of a beard etc have been found
  • Cinnabar was used as a Cosmetic lipstick, Face paints and even eyeliner were also known to them.
  • Spinning of cotton and wool was common among Harappan

VI- EXTENSIVE TOWN PLANNING

  • Houses were build of baked bricks, of fixed size.
  • Use of stone and wood in building has also been found
  • The concept of two storied houses were also present
  • Public Bath was a common feature example great bath at Mohenjo Daro ,it had galleries and rooms on all sides.
  • Granaries was another important creation which used to be located in Citadel .there construction was so intelligent that strategic conduct and platform can be found.
  • Drainage system of Harappa was note worthy .there was a temporary cover to drains,underground
  • Roads use to cut at right angles

 

Climate Change

 

  • National Environmental Appraisal and Monitoring Authority has been setup

 

 

India UK

UK-India Business Climate Leaders Group has been constituted. Comprising of leading CEOs the group will work on synergystic business for carbon reduction and joint work to evolve national emission reduction strategies.

FDI could be streamlined into low carbon initiatives.

Read moreClimate Change

Wars and Treaties

WarYearTreatyGov GeneralBattles et al
Anglo Marathas
First1775-82Began: Treaty of Surat

End: Treaty of Salbai

Warren HastingsBattle of Wadgaon
Second1803-05Began: treaty of BasseinLord WellesleyBattle of Assaye
Third1816-19Treaty of GwaliorMarquess  of HastingsBattle of Pindari

End of Peshwa rule

Anglo French
First1746-48Treaty of Aix-la-ChepelleReason: Austrian succession in Europe1746: Battle of Adyar/San Thome
Second1749-54War of succession between Nasir Jung (English) and Muzaffar Jung (French) after death of Nizam1749: Battle of Ambur

 

Rise of Robert Clive

Third1758-63Treaty of ParisReason: 7 years war in Europe1760: Battle of Wandiwash (French defeat)
Anglo Mysore
First1766-69
Second1780-1784Treaty of MangaloreWarren HastingsAfter death of Hyder Ali in 1782 Tipu led the war
Third1789-92Treaty of SeringapatnamCornwallisDefeat of Tipu
Fourth1799WellesleyBattle of Seringapatnam. Death of Tipu.
Anglo Sikh War
First1845-46Treaty of LahoreHardinge
Second1848-49DalhousieFinal Subjugation of the Sikhs

Read moreWars and Treaties

INDIAN THEATRE

Origins

  • Origins of Indian theatre not very well known
  • Drawings on caves show that dance, music and drama were an intrinsic part of the life of the people
  • Sitabengona and Jogimara (Ramgarh, MP) have structures that are possibly the oldest theatres of the world
  • IVC: a seal shows a person beating drum while other disguised as a tiger
  • A few hymns of the Rig Veda are in the monologue and dialogue form
  • Natyashastra evolved some guidelines for drama

Read moreINDIAN THEATRE

Economic Terms

Depository Receipt

A depositary receipt (DR) is a type of negotiable (transferable) financial security that is traded on a local stock exchange but represents a security, usually in the form of equity, that is issued by a foreign publicly listed company. The DR, which is a physical certificate, allows investors to hold shares in equity of other countries. One of the most common types of DRs is the American depositary receipt (ADR), which has been offering companies, investors and traders global investment opportunities since the 1920s.

Read moreEconomic Terms

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