Food web and Food chain

FOOD CHAIN- A food chain starts with producers and ends with top carnivores. The sequence of eaten and being eaten, produces transfer of food energy and it is known as food chain. Grazing food chain-The consumers which start the food chain, utilising the plant or plant part as their food, constitute the grazing food chain. … Read more

Basic concepts of ecosystem

Eco-System-An ecosystem is defined as a structural and functional unit of biosphere consisting of community of living beings and the physical environment, both interacting and exchanging materials between them. It includes plants, trees, animals, fish, birds, micro-organisms, water, soil, and  people. When an ecosystem is healthy (i.e. sustainable) it means that all the elements live … Read more

Plants and mankind, characteristics of plants, structure and function of plant cells and organelles;

  Objects having characteristics of cellular organization, growth, reproduction, ability to sense environment and give response are living organisms. There are some important features of living organisms: It should grow, which means its structure changes as time goes by in an advantageous manner. It should show adaptation to the environment. It should maintain some balanced … Read more


DNA: STRUCTURE   DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the … Read more

Ethical, social, legal and IPR (intellectual property rights) issues related to biotechnological development.

Biotechnology through Genetic engineering has made food crops more resistant to disease, but the mere act of modification of the naturally selected food crops may actually disturb the delicate balance of biodiversity which exists in nature causing a disturbance to the natural balance. The production of GMOs has negative impacts on the natural ecosystem which … Read more

Biotechnology: Introduction of Biotechnology, its potential to improve human life and national economy through agriculture (biofertilizers, biopesticides, biofuels, genetically modified crops), industrial development and employment generation. Areas of application -pharmaceuticals, human healthcare, food technology, energy generation etc.

Biotechnology is defined as the industrial application of living organisms and their biological processes such as biochemistry, microbiology, and genetic engineering, in order to make best use of the microorganisms for the benefit of mankind. Modern biotechnology provides breakthrough products and technologies to combat debilitating and rare diseases, reduce our environmental footprint, feed the hungry, … Read more

PAPER – IV General Studies 3:Science and Technology,Environment & Ecology

  Section-I, Role and Impact of Science and Technology in Development of Indian, Information Technology In Public Domain 1. Basics of Science and Technology. Classical and emerging areas of science and Technology (S&T)- Value Addition by Science & Technology- Current Science & Technology developments in India and Importance of Science & Technology as an engine … Read more

sex-linked inheritance

  The chromosomes present in the diploid cells of the majority of the sexually reproducing animals are of two types: autosomes bearing genes for somatic characters and sex chromosomes bearing genes for sex.  Sex chromosomes also carry some genes for non-sexual characters such as colour blindness and haemophilia.  Such genes which are always associated with … Read more

sex determination

  Whether an animal will become a male, a female, or a hermaphrodite is determined very early in development. Scientists have worked for hundreds of years to understand the sex-determination system. The first major breakthrough in understanding sex determination was the discovery of sex chromosomes in the early 1900s. From meticulous analyses of male and … Read more


  There is vast diversity of living organisms. The chemical compositon and metabolic reactions of the organisms appear to be similar. The composition of living tissues and non-living matter also appear to be similar in qualitative analysis.Closer analysis reveals that the relative abundance of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen is higher in living system.  All forms … Read more

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