Respiratory Quotient

 Respiratory quotient: Carbohydrates, fats and protein The respiratory quotient (or RQ or respiratory coefficient), is a dimensionless number used in calculations of basal metabolic rate (BMR) when estimated from carbon dioxide production. It is calculated from the ratio of carbon dioxide produced by the body to oxygen consumed by the body. Such measurements, like … Read more


 :In plants , the process by which animals and plants rid themselves of waste products and of the nitrogenous by-products of metabolism. Through excretion organisms control osmotic pressure—the balance between inorganic ions and water—and maintain acid-base balance. The process thus promotes homeostasis, the constancy of the organism’s internal environment. Plants have no special organs … Read more


 , nourishment, or aliment, is the supply of materials – food – required by organisms and cells to stay alive. In science and human medicine, nutrition is the science or practice of consuming and utilizing foods. Nutrients are the substances that form foods. These may include the following:  Carbohydrates They provide us with energy … Read more

Blood Group

 is an inherited feature on the surface of the red blood cells. A series of related blood types constitutes a blood group system, such as the Rh or ABO system. The frequencies of the ABO and Rh blood types vary from population to population. In the US, the most common type is O+ (meaning … Read more

Excretory System

 Introduction If you exercise on a hot day, you are likely to lose a lot of water in sweat. Then, for the next several hours, you may notice that you do not pass urine as often as normal and that your urine is darker than usual. Do you know why this happens? Your body … Read more

Epidemic Diseases

 Complete information on major types of epidemics in India India is endemic to many diseases such as Malaria, Kala-azar, Cholera, Tuberculosis. These erupt in epidemic form when conditions are favorable for their spread. Epidemics are disasters by themselves but these can emerge in the aftermath of other disasters as well. In the recent past, … Read more

Reflex Action

 In the body of an animal two types of activities take place: voluntary and involuntary. Voluntary action happens according to the will of the individual while there is not any control of will over involuntary action. Involuntary action may again be divided into two categories. The action of first category is related to internal … Read more

Diseases Related To Heart

 There are many types of heart disease that affect different parts of the organ and occur in different ways. Congenital heart disease   This is a general term for some deformities of the heart that have been present since birth. Examples include:   Septal defects: There is a hole between the two chambers of … Read more

Diseases Related To Kidney

 Abderhalden-Kaufmann-Lignac syndrome Autosomal recessive syndrome of disturbance of amino acid transport characterized by deposition of cystine crystals in numerous tissues of the body, particularly evident in the conjunctiva and cornea. Children in whom cystinosis is found are subnormal in development, with dwarfing, rickets, and osteoporosis. Renal tubular disease, aminoaciduria, glycosuria, and hypokalemia are usually … Read more

Control And Coordination

 :Plants and animals All the living organisms respond and react to changes in the environment around them. The changes in the environment to which the organisms respond and react are called stimuli such as light, heat, cold, sound, smell, touch etc. Coordination in plants Coordination refers to ordered working of different but interrelated parts … Read more

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