Conjunction

 

 

 

Conjunctions

 

What are conjunctions?

 

A conjunction is a part of speech that joins two words, phrases or clauses together.

 

There are three types of conjunctions:

Coordinating Conjunctions

Correlative Conjunctions

Common Subordinating Conjunctions

  • for
  • and
  • nor
  • but
  • or
  • yet
  • so
  • either…or
  • neither…nor
  • not only…but also
  • both…and
  • whether…or
  • after
  • before
  • although
  • though
  • even though
  • as much as
  • as long as
  • as soon as
  • because
  • since
  • so that
  • in order that
  • if
  • lest
  • even if
  • that
  • unless
  • until
  • when
  • where
  • whether
  • while

 

 

Coordinating conjunctions

 

Coordinating conjunctions, also called coordinators, are conjunctions that connect two or more equal items.

Examples:

  • He plays tennis and soccer
  • He works quickly but accurately
  • You’d better do your homework, or you’ll get a terrible grade.

 

Correlative conjunctions

 

Correlative conjunctions are used in pairs.They work in pairs to coordinate two items. Examples of correlative conjunctions includeboth…and…, either…or, not only… but also…

Examples:

  • I didn’t know that she can neither read nor write.
  • You can either walk to school or take the bus.
  • Both Sara and James are invited to the party.
  • Whether you watch TV or do your homework is your decision.
  • Not only are they noisy but they are also lazy.

 

Subordinating conjunctions

 

Subordinating conjunctions, also called subordinators, are conjunctions that join a dependent (or subordinating) clause to an independent (or main) clause.

Examples:

  • He reads the newspapers after he finishes work.
  • Even if you get the best grade in the writing test, you’ll need to pass an oral test.
  • Although he is very old, he goes jogging every morning.
  • She didn’t go to school because she was ill.
  • They went to bed since it was late
  • As soon as the teacher had arrived, they started work.

 

“So”, subordinating conjunction or coordinator?

 

So” is a small English word that can have different meanings. As mentioned in the table above, it is commonly used as a coordinator rather than as a subordinating conjunction. There are, however, instances when “so” may introduce purpose and in this case “so” is used as a subordinating conjunction.

Examples:

  • “I took my umbrella with me so I wouldn’t get wet.”
  • ” I stayed so I could see you.”

 

Questions:

Level-I:

  1.  like sugar in my tea,           I don’t like milk in it.
  2. Listen to the story         answer the questions in complete sentences.
  3. Is it Thursday           Friday today?
  4. He was late           the bus didn’t come.
  5. We were very tired           happy after our flight to Sydney.
  6. They climbed the mountain           it was very windy.
  7.          Lenny was watching the planes his wife was reading in the car.
  8. I’ll text you           I have arrived in Toronto.
  9. Neither my brother           my sister own a car.
  10. The sun was warm,           the wind was a bit too cool.

 

 

 

 

 

Level-II:

Join each pair of the following sentences by means of a suitable conjunction.

1. James smokes. His brother does not smoke.

2. Alice hasn’t come. Mary hasn’t come.

3. She speaks English. She speaks Spanish.

4. I like him. He is very sincere.

5. He did not win. He worked hard.

6. She is ill. She is cheerful.

7. We decided to go out. It was raining.

8. The piper played. The children danced.

9. James works hard. His brother is lazy.

10. I went to the shop. I bought some vegetables.

11. You must start at once. You will be late.

12. He must be tired. He has been working since morning.

 

Answers:

Level-I:

  1. I like sugar in my tea, but I don’t like milk in it.
  2. Listen to the story and answer the questions in complete sentences.
  3. Is it Thursday or Friday today?
  4. He was late because the bus didn’t come.
  5. We were very tired but happy after our flight to Sydney.
  6. They climbed the mountain although it was very windy.
  7. While Lenny was watching the planes his wife was reading in the car.
  8. I’ll text you after I have arrived in Toronto.
  9. Neither my brother nor my sister own a car.
  10. The sun was warm, yet the wind was a bit too cool.

 

 

Level-II:

1. John smokes but his brother doesn’t.

2. Neither Alice nor Mary has come.

3. She speaks English as well as Spanish. OR She speaks English and Spanish.

4. I like him because he is very sincere.

5. Though he worked hard, he did not win.

6. She is ill but she is cheerful.

7. Though it was raining we decided to go out.

8. The piper played and the children danced.

9. James works hard whereas his brother is lazy.

10. I went to the shop and bought some vegetables.

11. You must start at once; otherwise you will be late.

12. He must be tired because he has been working since morning.

 

 

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