Demographically it’s the increase in population of cities and towns ,while sociologically it’s the spread of urban way of life to the country side .
Urbanization in India has occurred more slowly than in other developing countries and the proportion of the population in urban areas has been only 28 per cent based on the 2001 census. The pace of urbanization is now set to accelerate as the country sets to a more rapid growth. Economic reform has already unleashed investment and growth offering its citizens rich opportunities. Surging growth and employment in cities will prove a powerful magnet. 300 million Indians currently live in towns and cities. Within 20-25 years, another 300 million people will get added to Indian towns and cities. This urban expansion will happen at a speed quite unlike anything that India has seen before. It took nearly forty years for India’s urban population to rise by 230 million. It could take only half the time to add the next 250 million. If not well managed, this inevitable increase in India’s urban population will place enormous stress on the system.
In Census of India, 2001 two types of town were identified (R.G,2001):
a) Statutory towns : All places with a municipality, corporation, Cantonment board or notified town area committee, etc. so declared by state law.
b) Census towns : Places which satisfy following criteria :-
i) a minimum population of 5000 ;
ii) atleast 75% of male working population engaged in non agricultural pursuits; and
iii) a density of population of atleast 400 persons per sq km
Dimensions of urbanization :-
- detrographic – growth of urban population and metropolitan cities .
> pattern of urbanization
> urban -agglomeration (>1 million)
> rapid urbanization or over – urbanization
– urbanism as a way of life
> effects of city wider than city itself – urban infuence in surrounding area
– primary ( by great tradition ( carry regional traditions) ) & secondary urbanization ( due to industrialization disintisgrate regional tradition by bringing external element to city )
– changing social and economic institutions
> increased secondary & tertiary activities
> visible change in caste system ,joint family ,neighbourshood
> induces ruler urban migration
Problems of urban areas
- Over – urbanisation – excessive population pressure on civic amenities ,housing ,etcs
- Inadequate housing – nearly 70 % live in substances housing .
- Unsafe and insufficient water supply
- Inefficien and inadequate transport
- Environmental decay
- Slums – poor housing
– higher density of population
– lack of public utilization – sanitation ,water
– crime , drug abuse , alcoholism , poverty ,
– social isolation
- Isolation -lack of social interaction
- Mala adjustment
- Power shortage
State policy on urban problem
- Legislation related to urban land and holding
= rent control act ,1948
=urban land ceiling and regulation act ,1976
- Programes of slum clearence & construction of new house
= national housing bank ( 7th plan )
- Finance of housing
- Town water supply and swage
- Urban transport
- Master plan for development (2030)
Human role in pollution control
The enhanced pace of developmental activities and rapid urbanization have resulted in stress on natural resources and quality of life. The trend of increasing pollution in various environmental media is evident from the deteriorating air and water quality, higher noise levels, increasing vehicular emission etc. Realising the urgent need for arresting the trend, Both Central and State Governments have adopted policy for Abatement of Pollution which provides for several mechanisms in the form of regulations, legislation, agreements, fiscal incentives and other measures to prevent and abate pollution. Further, realizing that conventional pollution control approach by treatment at the end of the pipe is not delivering the desired benefits in terms of resource conservation, the thrust has been shifted to pollution prevention and control through promotion of clean and low waste technology, re-use and recycling, natural resource accounting, Environmental Audit and Institutional and Human Resource Development.
Various techniques to control Air Pollution are:-
- Combustion:- is used for controlling those air pollutants that are in the form of organic gases or vapours. In this technique, the organic air pollutants are subjected to flame combustion technique (also known as catalytic combustion). In this technique, organic pollutants are converted into less harmful products and water vapour.
- Absorption:-is the most commonly used methods, especially for controlling emissions from small sources. It can be physical adsorption or chemisorptions.
- Fabric filters, or baghouses, remove dust from a gas stream by passing the stream through a porous fabric. The fabric filter is efficient at removing fine particles and can exceed efficiencies of 99 percent in most applications.
- Mechanical devices:-There are many mechanical devices that clean the air of pollutants either due to (i) gravity in which the particles settle down by gravitational force; or by (ii) sudden change in the direction of gas flow in which particles separate out due to greater momentum.
- Electrostatic precipitators:-is a particle control device that uses electrical forces to move the particles out of the flowing gas stream and onto collector plates.
Environment and human health; Effects of pollutants on animals and plants
Human beings are exposed to a variety of chemicals including industrial chemicals, pesticides, air pollutants, natural and man made toxicants etc in the environment through the skin, respiratory system and gastrointestinal tract that can affect vital body systems such as pulmonary, reproductive and nervous and immune system. Dysfunction of these systems could have far-reaching consequences, which affect individuals and even their progeny from serious health ailments.
Air pollutants can be in the form of particulate matter which can be very harmful to our health. The level of effect usually depends on the length of time of exposure, as well the kind and concentration of chemicals and particles exposed to. Short-term effects include irritation to the eyes, nose and throat, and upper respiratory infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia. Others include headaches, nausea, and allergic reactions. Short-term air pollution can aggravate the medical conditions of individuals with asthma and emphysema. Long-term health effects can include chronic respiratory disease, lung cancer, heart disease, and even damage to the brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys. Continual exposure to air pollution affects the lungs of growing children and may aggravate or complicate medical conditions in the elderly.
Effects of Water Pollution
Waterborne diseases caused by polluted drinking water:
Waterborne diseases caused by polluted beach water:
- Rashes, ear ache, pink eye
- Respiratory infections
- Hepatitis, encephalitis, gastroenteritis, diarrhoea, vomiting, and stomach aches
Conditions related to water polluted by chemicals (such as pesticides, hydrocarbons, persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals etc):
- Cancer, incl. prostate cancer and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
- Hormonal problems that can disrupt reproductive and developmental processes
- Damage to the nervous system
- Liver and kidney damage
- Damage to the DNA
- Exposure to mercury
The impacts on human health from degradation of the environment affect society not only in terms of loss of quality of life, but also in terms of expenditure on health care, loss of productivity and loss of income.
Urbanisation and Industrial development
Major Environmental problems of unplanned urbanization are:-
1.High rent & land prices: More travel time and release of pollutants due to transport
2.Electricity crisis : Use of generators
4.Gardens & buildings
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