Nizam’s Rule in Hyderabad – Karnataka

Nizam’s Rule in Hyderabad – Karnataka

 

History Of Hyderabad

 

History of Hyderabad was establish under the variety of kingdom for example the chalukya kingdom whose feudal chieftains, the katatiyas,in 1321 AD, the sultanate of Delhi under the command of Muhammad bin Tughluq,Bahmani Sultanate,the Masunuri Nayakas,the  Vijayanagara,Nizam and British.Chin Qilich khan had been given the title of Nizam –ul- Mulk and had been made the governor of the Deccan. In 1722 he was made the Wazir but soon afterwards

he returned to the Deccan and consolidated the hold over the region.his successors were called the Nizams of Hyderabad.The Nizams of Hyderabad ruled over Hyderabad for thr two centuries and added the colour of immense growth both culturally and economically.

 

Introduction

 

The Nizam-ul-Mulk of Hyderabad, popularly known as the Nizam of Hyderabad, was a monarch of the Hyderabad State, now divided into the states of Telangana, Karnataka and Maharashtra. Nizam, shortened from Nizam-ul-Mulk, meaning Administrator of the Realm, was the title of the sovereigns of Hyderabad State, since 1724, belonging to the Asaf Jah dynasty. This dynasty rule ended with Mir Osman Ali Khan on 17th September 1948. The territory forming the Hyderabad state was known as the Dominion of His Exalted Highness, the Nizam. It had a rich political history while a few of the Nizams like Nizam Ali Khan (1762-1803), and Mir Osman Ali Khan ruled for considerable length of time, others were in power for lesser periods.

 

Rise of Nizams

Rise of Nizams The first Nizam ruled on behalf of the Mughal emperors. After the death of Aurangzeb, the Nizams split from the Mughals to form an independent kingdom. When the British achieved paramountcy over India, the Nizams were allowed to continue to rule their princely states as client kings. The Nizams retained internal power over Hyderabad State until 17 September 1948 when Hyderabad was integrated into the new Indian Union. The Asaf Jah dynasty had only seven rulers, however there was a period of 13 years after the rule of the first Nizam when three of his sons (Nasir Jung, Muzafar Jung and Salabath Jung) ruled. They were not officially recognized as the rulers. A legend about the first Nizam states that, on one of his hunting trips he was offered some kulcha oval bread (an Indian bread) by a holy man and was asked to eat as many as he could. The Nizam could eat seven kulchas and the holy man then prophesied that seven generations of his family would rule the state. By tradition no Nizam has ever left India no matter how good a reason might exist for doing so.

 

 

Education during Nizam’s Period

 

Marathwada was an integral part of the former native state of Hyderabad prior to 1948. Ever since the introduction of modern education Urdu was the medium of instruction throug hout the Nizam territories.Persian and Arabic were the only other languages encouraged, besides English, which was taught as a second language. Spread of Islamic culture was the main aspect of the educational system during the Nizam’s rule. The establishment of Osmania University gave fillip to Muslim ambitions and aspirations, facilitating the spread of the creed of the rulers. The first step for educating people in the districts of the state was taken in 1859-60 (1269 F). Government ordered opening of two schoolsAs regards the introduction of English Education in Marathwada, the year 1874 witnessed the opening of Anglo Vernacular School at Aurangabad

 

Grotwth And Development

 

After shifting the capital of state Aurangabad to Hyderabad during the period of  Nizam Ali Khan Asaf Jah the city regained its momentum experienced continuous  growth since then

Hyderabad city developed in two phase of twin settlement. The first was the Golconda-Hyderabad phase converting the period A.D.1591 to A.D.1687 and the second was the Hyderabad – Secunderabad phasecomprising the period A.D. 1798 to A.D. 1940.the firts phase saw Hyderabad over shadowing Golconda,reducing the later to a dormitory suburb in ruins .The second phase witnessed the incessant political and economic interaction between two distinctive cultures,native and alien.The full way of intergrating forces culminated in the political fision of Hyderabad and Secunderabad through an Act of the Local Legislature in 1960.

 

 

Mir Osman Ali Khan

 

The seventh and the last Nizam of Hyderabad ruled for 37 years (1911 – 1948). His Dominion was lager than England and Scotland put together, with an area of 86,000 Sq. miles.

The seventh Nizam led a very simple life, yet he was one of the richest men in the world. He donated generously to every cause in India as well as abroad irrespective of caste and religion. If it was the Muslim theological school at Deoband which received financial help, it was also the privilege of the Benaras Hindu University. His list of donations included Rabindranth Tagore’s Shantiniketan and several other institutions including hospitals, schools, for famine relief, etc.

 

The Nizam lost Hyderabad in 1948

In 1948 when independent India was born the Nizam refused to accede to the Indian territory.Instead, he wanted Hyderabad to be recognised as an independent sovereignty. In September 1948, the Indian government launched a police offensive – titled Operation Polo – five days after which Hyderabad was captured.Thus ended the 224-years of Asaf Jahi rule in Hyderabad.

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