DMPQ- Mention some harmful bacteria

Pathogenic Bacteria

These bacteria cause great losses to plant and animal popula­tion by causing several diseases.

Reduction of Soil Fertility

Some facul­tative anaerobic bacteria are available mostly in the oxygen deficient soil which reverse the nitrifying process, thereby causing the loss of a part of its combined nitrogen. They break down the nitrates in a stepwise manner either to ammonia through assimilatory nitrate reduction or to N2 through dissimilatory nitrate reduction.

Spoilage of Food

In favourable temperature and humidity, bacteria can grow luxuriantly in many food materials. They change the flavour, appearance and smell of food.

Different species of Streptococcus, Micro­coccus and Lactobacillus cause spoilage of milk and different milk products. The exotoxin pro­duced by Clostridium botulinum causes botulism disease showing the symptoms like swelling of tongue, double vision and respiratory distur­bances.

Pollution of Water

Some bacteria pol­lute water and make it unsuitable for drinking. Diseases like cholera (Vibrio cholerae), typhoid fever (Salmonella typhi) and bacillus dysentery (Shigella dysenteriae) are commonly transmitted by drinking water.

Biological Warfare

Bacteria causing dis­eases like anthrax, black-leg, tuberculo­sis, etc., are used as secret war-agents.


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