Definition of Horticulture:
- Horticulture may be broadly defined as the Science and art of growing fruits, vegetables and flowers and crops like spices condiments and other plantation crops.
- It is a science of cultivation of Garden plants.
- The word Horticulture in derived from the Latin word Hortus meaning enclosure (garden) and culture – meaning, cultivation,. Thus Horticulture mans culture or cultivation of garden crops.
Branches of Horticulture:
Horticultural Science is the most distinct branch of Agricultural Sciences and call be divided into four different branches as follow.
- Pamology– It deals with cultivation of fruit crops.
- Olericulture- It deals with cultivation of vegetable crops
- Floriculture- It deals with cultivation of ornamental flowers and land scaping.
- Fruit and
vegetable preservation- It deals with the principles of fruit and vegetable preservation
- Plantation and Medicinal plants.
- Ornamental Gardening
- Landscape gardening and
- Nursery plant production
Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH)
- Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture (MIDH) is a Centrally Sponsored Scheme for the holistic growth of the horticulture sector covering fruits, vegetables, root & tuber crops, mushrooms, spices, flowers, aromatic plants, coconut, cashew, cocoa and bamboo.
- While Government of India (GOI) contributes 85% of total outlay for developmental programmes in all the states except the states in North East and Himalayas, 15% share is contributed by State Governments.
- In the case of North Eastern States and Himalayan States, GOI contribution is 100%. Similarly, for development of bamboo and programmes of National Horticulture Board (NHB), Coconut Development Board (CDB), Central Institute for Horticulture (CIH), Nagaland and the National Level Agencies (NLA), GOI contribution will be 100%.
Main objectives of the Mission are:
- Promote holistic growth of horticulture sector, including bamboo and coconut through area based regionally differentiated strategies, which includes research, technology promotion, extension, post harvest management, processing and marketing, in consonance with comparative advantage of each State/region and its diverse agro-climatic features;
- Encourage aggregation of farmers into farmer groups like FIGs/FPOs and FPCs to bring economy of scale and scope.
- Enhance horticulture production, augment farmers, income and strengthen nutritional security;
- Improve productivity by way of quality germplasm, planting material and water use efficiency through Micro Irrigation.
- Support skill development and create employment generation opportunities for rural youth in horticulture and post harvest management, especially in the cold chain sector.
National Horticulture Board (NHB)
- National Horticulture Board (NHB) was set up by Government of India in April 1984 on the basis of recommendations of the "Group on Perishable Agricultural Commodities", headed by Dr M. S. Swaminathan, the then Member (Agriculture), Planning Commission, Government of India.
- The NHB is registered as a Society under the Societies Registration Act 1860, with its headquarters at Gurgaon.
Aims & Objectives of NHB Schemes
The main objectives of the NHB are to improve integrated development of Horticulture industry and to help in coordinating, sustaining the production and processing of fruits and vegetables. Detailed objectives of the Board are as under:-
- Development of hi-tech commercial horticulture in identified belts and make such areas vibrant with horticultural activity, which in turn will act as hubs for development of horticulture.
- Development of modern post-harvest management infrastructure as an integral part of area expansion projects or as common facility for cluster of projects.
- Development of integrated, energy efficient cold chain infrastructure for fresh horticulture produce.
- Popularization of identified new technologies / tools / techniques for commercialization / adoption, after carrying out technology and need assessment.
- Assistance in securing availability of quality planting material by promoting setting up of scion and root stock banks / mother plant nurseries and carrying out accreditation / rating of horticulture nurseries and need based imports of planting material.
- Promotion and market development of fresh horticulture produce.
- Promotion of field trials of newly developed/imported planting materials and other farm inputs; production technology; PHM protocols, INM and IPM protocols and promotion of applied R&D programmes for commercialization of proven technology.
- Promotion of Farm Mechanization in Horticulture through demonstration and its uses at farmers field level to reduce labour cost and increase the productivity of Horticulture crops.
- Promotion of applied R & D for standardizing PHM protocols, prescribing critical storage conditions for fresh horticulture produce, bench marking of technical standards for cold chain infrastructure etc.
- Transfer of technology to producers/farmers and service providers such as gardeners, nurserymen, farm level skilled workers, operators in cold storages, work force carrying out post harvest management including processing of fresh horticulture produce and to the master trainers.
- Promotion of consumption of horticulture produce and products.
- Promoting long distance transport solution for bulk movement of horticulture produce through rail etc.
- Carrying out studies and surveys to identify constraints and develop short and long term strategies for systematic development of horticulture and providing technical services including advisory and consultancy services.
Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture in North East and Himalayan States
- Centrally Sponsored Scheme on Technology Mission for Integrated Development of Horticulture in North East and Himalayan States has been renamed as Horticulture Mission for North East and Himalayan States (HMNEH) during 2010-11.
- The scheme is being implemented in a mission mode with an end-to-end approach which includes development and introduction of high yielding varieties and technologies, expansvion of area, post harvest handling and management, marketing, value addition and processing of horticulture produce with following four Mini Missions, namely:
- Mini Mission I – Research: Coordinated and implemented by Indian Council of Agricultural Research. This Mini Mission concentrates on technology generation appropriate to the region. Major components under MM-I are supply of basic seed and planting material, technology standardization, refinement, on farm demonstration and training.
- Mini Mission ii – Production and Productivity : Coordinated by Department of Agriculture & Cooperation and implemented by State Departments of Horticulture/ Agriculture. This mini mission aims at increasing production and productivity of Horticulture crops by adoption of improved production Technologies.
- Mini Mission iii – Post-Harvest Management and Marketing : Coordinated by Department of Agriculture & Cooperation, implemented by Directorate of Marketing & Inspection and National Horticulture Board. This Mini Mission aims for efficient post-harvest management, techniques, which include development of cold storage facilities, efficient transport and marketing facilities.
- Mini Mission IV – Processing: Coordinated and implemented by Ministry of Food Processing Industries, Government of India. This Mini Mission aims at promoting processing industry for value addition to Horticultural produce by promoting new processing units and up gradation of existing units.
Coconut Development Board (CDB)
- Coconut Development Board (CDB) is a statutory body established under the Ministry of Agriculture of the Government of India for the integrated development of coconut and coconut-related products.
- Coconut Development Board is a statutory body established by the Government of India for the integrated development of coconut production and utilization in the country with focus on productivity increase and product diversification.
- The Board which came into existence on 12 January 1981, functions under the administrative control of the Ministry of Agriculture, Government of India, with its Headquarters at Kochi in Kerala and Regional Offices at Bangalore in Karnataka, Chennai in Tamil Nadu and Guwahati in Assam.
- There are six State Centres situated at Bhubaneswar in Orissa, Calcutta in West Bengal, Patna in Bihar, Thane in Maharashtra, Hyderabad in Andhra Pradesh and Port Blair in the Union Territory of Andaman & Nicobar Islands.
- The Board has 9 Demonstration cum Seed Production (DSP) Farms in different locations of the country and now 7 farms are maintained.
- A Market Development cum Information Centre has established in Delhi. The Board has set up a Technology Development Centre at Vazhakulam near Aluva in Kerala.
CENTRAL INSTITUTE OF HORTICULTURE
- Recognizing the importance for institutional support for development of horticulture in NE Region, Government of India has sanctioned a Central Sector Scheme for setting up of Central Institute of Horticulture in Nagaland during January, 2006. The financial outlay for the setting up of Institute over a period of 5 years is Rs.20 crores.
- The Institute is being set up at Medziphema in an area of 43.50 ha, which is situated at 35 kms. from Dimapur and 45 kms. from Kohima city on National Highway 39.
- It has an elevation ranging from 250 to 300 metres having temperature between 12 to 35 degree centigrade and average rainfall of 2500 mm.
- The area has low hilly terrains with good soil suitable for growing most of the sub tropical horticultural crops. The objectives and the identified programmes of the Institute are as given below:
Objectives of the Institute
The main objective of the Institute is to support horticulture development in the N.E. region through:
- Capacity building by training of trainers, extension officers, farmers, entrepreneurs, processors and exporters,
- Demonstration of improved technologies such as use of improved varieties / hybrids, adoption of INM / IPM practices, Hi-tech farming, precision farming, protected cultivation, post harvest technology, etc, and
- Follow-on extension support in the field of horticulture.
- Promotion of organic cultivation of horticultural crops.
- Establishing convergence and synergy among programmes in the field of horticultural research and development.
- monitoring of Centrally sponsored programmes in the area of horticulture
National Horticulture Mission
Structure of the National Horticulture Mission
- Minister of agriculture is the chairman of this mission and Ministers of Commerce, Health, Finance, Food Processing Industries, Panchayati Raj, Science & Technology, Rural Development, Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises are its members.
- It works on “Cluster Basis’. This means that the designated authority at the district level would choose a cluster of minimum 100 hectares, seek necessary approval & sanction and utilize the money under the programme -with the aim of achieving the desired goals.
- These goals are achieved by deploying modern and hi-tech interventions and duly ensuring backward and forward linkages. A Cluster, as contemplated in the NHM, comprises area of not less than 100 hectares under a horticulture crop.
- The intervention is done in the following components
Plantation Infrastructure and Development-Nurseries, Tissue Culture labs
- The support is available for setting up a nursery for producing quality plant material. However, nursery should be minimum with 1 hectare in area.
- The mission does not support establish the new Tissue Culture (TC) units.
- However, assistance is provided for rehabilitation/ strengthening of existing TC Units subject to a maximum ceiling of Rs.8.00 lakhs in Public sector and Rs.4.00 lakhs for Private sector
Establishment of New Gardens
The farmers can get assistance for 3 years for development of a new garden of a horticulture crop.
Rejuvenation of Old and Senile Orchards
NHM provides support for rejuvenating senile plantations @ 50% of the cost subject to a maximum ceiling of Rs.15, 000/- per ha limited to 2 ha per beneficiary.
Other Support Areas
- Integrated Pest Management/Integrated Nutrient Management
- Protected Cultivation
- Organic Farming
- Pollination Support through Bee keeping
- Creation of Water Sources
- HRD ( such as at Krishi Vigyan Kendra)
- Post Harvest Management
- Primary Processing
- Contract Farming
- Mushroom Cultivation
- Precision Farming
Role of Agencies in the National Horticulture Mission
- National Horticulture Board (NHB), Gurgaon: NHB at Gurgaon houses the national level Technology Support Group or TSG.
- Directorate of Cashew and Cocoa Development (DCCD), Kochi: Responsible for plantation crops, other than coconut and areca nut.
- Directorate of Arecanut and Spices Development (DASD), Calicut: Responsible for areca nut, spices, and aromatic plants.
- National Committee on Plasticulture Applications in Horticulture (NCPAH), New Delhi: Responsible for precision farming and hitech horticulture through Precision Farming Development Centres (PFDCs).
- Coconut Development Board (CDB), Kochi: Coconut based intercropping of vegetables etc.
- Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA), New Delhi: Development of AgriExport Zones (AEZ) for horticultural crops.
- Directorate of Marketing & Inspection (DMI), New Delhi: Providing market intelligence and monitoring of programmes relating to marketing of horticulture crops.
- Ministry of Food Processing Industries (MFPI), New Delhi: Processing of horticultural produce, out of their own budget provision. MFPI will ensure convergence of their schemes with NHM cluster.
- National Medicinal Plants Board (NMPB), New Delhi: Development of medicinal plants in coordination with NHM.
- National Horticulture Research & Development Foundation (NHRDF), Nasik: Vegetables and vegetable seeds.
KPSC Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for KPSC Prelims and KPSC Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by KPSC Notes are as follows:-
- KPSC Mains Tests and Notes Program 2022
- KPSC Prelims Exam 2022- Test Series and Notes Program 2022
- KPSC Prelims and Mains Tests Series and Notes Program 2022
- KPSC Detailed Complete Prelims Notes 2022