Geographical location of Karnataka

Geographical location of Karnataka:-



Geography of Karnataka states that Karnataka is the eighth largest state in India. Mysore was renamed as Karnataka on the first day of November, 1973. Spread over an area of 1, 92,000 square kilometers, Karnataka is situated on a tableland where the Western and Eastern Ghat ranges converge into the Nilgiri hill complex. Karnataka is situated on the western edge of the Deccan Peninsular region of India. It is located approximately between 11.5° North and 18.5° North latitudes and 74° East and 78.5° East longitudes. Karnataka comprises the Deccan Plateau, the Western Ghats Mountain Range and the Coastal Plains. Karnataka is bordered by Maharashtra and Goa states in the North and North-West; by the Arabian Sea in the West; by Kerala and Tamilnadu states in the South and by the state of Andhra Pradesh in the East. The State spreads to about 750 km from North to South and about 400 km from East to West. Physiograpically, Karnataka is part of two well-defined regions of India:Geographical location of Karnataka

  • The Deccan Plateau
  • The Coastal plains and Islands.

Physiographic landforms of Karnataka:-

The state can be divided into four physiographic landforms –

  • The Northern Karnataka Plateau
  • The Central Karnataka Plateau
  • The Southern Karnataka Plateau
  • The Coastal Karnataka Region.

Northern Karnataka Plateau:-

The Northern Karnataka Plateau covers the districts of Belgaum, Bidar, Bijapur and Gulbarga. The area is mainly composed of the Deccan Trap. It represents an extensive deforested plateau landscape. The Northern Karnataka Plateau has an elevation of 300 metres to 600 metres from the sea level. The plateau slopes towards the east. The landscape is mainly covered with rich black cotton soils. The vast expanse of treeless plateau is interspersed with river plains, watersheds, residual hills and ridges. The river plains are represented by those of River Bhima, River Ghataprabha, River Krishna and River Malaprabha.

Central Karnataka Plateau:-

The Central Karnataka Plateau is located between the Northern Karnataka Plateau and the Southern Karnataka Plateau. It consists of districts like Bellary, Chikmagalur, Chitradurga, Dharwad, Raichur and Shimoga. The elevation of the Central Karnataka Plateau varies between 450 metres and 700 metres. The general slope of this plateau is towards the east. This region is the location of the Tungabhadra River basin.

Southern Karnataka Plateau:-

The Southern Karnataka Plateau includes the districts of Bangalore Urban, Bangalore Rural, Hassan, Kodagu, Kolar, Mandya, Mysore and Tumkur. This plateau region is covered by a high degree of slope. It is encircled by the Western Ghats on the west and the south. The Southern Karnataka Plateau has a general elevation of 600 metres to 900 metres. But the Biligirirangan hills of Mysore district and the Brahmagiri range of Kodagu district have residual heights ranging between 1,500 metres to 1,750 metres. The Cauvery River basin forms a significant part of this plateau.

Karnataka Coastal Region:-

The Karnataka coastal belt starts from the Western Ghats in the west and extends till the edge of the Karnataka Plateau in the east. The Karnataka Coastal Region includes the districts of Uttara Kannada and Dakshina Kannada. The terrain of this region consists of rivers, creeks, waterfalls, ranges of hills and peaks. The Karnataka Coastal Region can be divided into two main geographical divisions, known as the Western Ghats and the plains. The coastal belt has an average width of 50 km to 80 km. It covers a distance of around 267 km from north to south.

River Systems of Karnataka:-

Karnataka has seven river systems and their tributaries flowing through the state. The river systems of Karnataka are:

  • Cauvery
  • Godavari
  • Krishna
  • North Pennar
  • South Pennar
  • Palar
  • The West Flowing Rivers

Karnataka has 26 east flowing rivers and 10 west flowing rivers. The west flowing rivers of Karnataka flow to the Arabian Sea. These west-flowing rivers are responsible for providing 60% of the state’s inland water resources.

Geology  of  Karnataka:-

The  geology  of  Karnataka  lay  widespread  in  5  major  eras,  namely  the  Archean, Proterozoic, Mesozoic and the Ceonzoic. The geology of Karnataka is largely confined to the two oldest eras; the Archean and the Proterozic. The rest of the great periods from Cambrian to recent are hardly represented but for minor sediments of recent age exposed along the coastal margin to the West. A  substantial  part of  North  Karnataka  is  covered  by  Deccan  trap,  representing  phenomenal outburst of volcanic activity at the dawn of the Cenozoic era. The  state  is  exposed  oldest  rocks  in  Gorur  area,  Hassan  district,  Karnataka  date  back  to  about 3300  million  years.  The  Precambrian  craton  of  Karnataka  is  made  up  of  western  and  eastern segments.  The  Precambrians  of  Karnataka  have  been  divided  into  older  Sargur  supracrustals (about  3300  to  3000  million  year  old)  and  younger  Dharwar  supracrustals  (about  3000  to  2600 million  year  old.  The  Dharwar  supracrustals  Supergroup  has  been  further  divided  into  older Bababudan  Group  (ca.3000  to  2700  million  years)  and  younger  Chitradurga  Group  (ca.2700  to 2500 million years). The schist belts of the Eastern craton, like Kolar, Hutti, Sandur etc., appear to be approximately equivalent to the Chitradurga Group.The Karnataka craton has been extensively intruded by granites and granitoids of the ca. age 2600 to  2500  million  years.  The  eastern  Karnataka  abounds  in  these  granites  and  granitoids. The northern  part  of  Karnataka  is  made  up  of  Kaladgi  and  Badami  and  Bhima  Group  of  sediments, approximately  of  Proterozoic  age.  Further  north  the  terrain  is  covered  by  extensive  volcanic flows known as Deccan traps of Cretaceous -Tertiary age.

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