Geographical location of Karnataka:-
Geography of Karnataka states that Karnataka is the eighth largest state in India. Mysore was renamed as Karnataka on the first day of November, 1973. Spread over an area of 1, 92,000 square kilometers, Karnataka is situated on a tableland where the Western and Eastern Ghat ranges converge into the Nilgiri hill complex. Karnataka is situated on the western edge of the Deccan Peninsular region of India. It is located approximately between 11.5° North and 18.5° North latitudes and 74° East and 78.5° East longitudes. Karnataka comprises the Deccan Plateau, the Western Ghats Mountain Range and the Coastal Plains. Karnataka is bordered by Maharashtra and Goa states in the North and North-West; by the Arabian Sea in the West; by Kerala and Tamilnadu states in the South and by the state of Andhra Pradesh in the East. The State spreads to about 750 km from North to South and about 400 km from East to West. Physiograpically, Karnataka is part of two well-defined regions of India:
- The Deccan Plateau
- The Coastal plains and Islands.
Physiographic landforms of Karnataka:-
The state can be divided into four physiographic landforms –
- The Northern Karnataka Plateau
- The Central Karnataka Plateau
- The Southern Karnataka Plateau
- The Coastal Karnataka Region.
Northern Karnataka Plateau:-
The Northern Karnataka Plateau covers the districts of Belgaum, Bidar, Bijapur and Gulbarga. The area is mainly composed of the Deccan Trap. It represents an extensive deforested plateau landscape. The Northern Karnataka Plateau has an elevation of 300 metres to 600 metres from the sea level. The plateau slopes towards the east. The landscape is mainly covered with rich black cotton soils. The vast expanse of treeless plateau is interspersed with river plains, watersheds, residual hills and ridges. The river plains are represented by those of River Bhima, River Ghataprabha, River Krishna and River Malaprabha.
Central Karnataka Plateau:-
The Central Karnataka Plateau is located between the Northern Karnataka Plateau and the Southern Karnataka Plateau. It consists of districts like Bellary, Chikmagalur, Chitradurga, Dharwad, Raichur and Shimoga. The elevation of the Central Karnataka Plateau varies between 450 metres and 700 metres. The general slope of this plateau is towards the east. This region is the location of the Tungabhadra River basin.
Southern Karnataka Plateau:-
The Southern Karnataka Plateau includes the districts of Bangalore Urban, Bangalore Rural, Hassan, Kodagu, Kolar, Mandya, Mysore and Tumkur. This plateau region is covered by a high degree of slope. It is encircled by the Western Ghats on the west and the south. The Southern Karnataka Plateau has a general elevation of 600 metres to 900 metres. But the Biligirirangan hills of Mysore district and the Brahmagiri range of Kodagu district have residual heights ranging between 1,500 metres to 1,750 metres. The Cauvery River basin forms a significant part of this plateau.
Karnataka Coastal Region:-
The Karnataka coastal belt starts from the Western Ghats in the west and extends till the edge of the Karnataka Plateau in the east. The Karnataka Coastal Region includes the districts of Uttara Kannada and Dakshina Kannada. The terrain of this region consists of rivers, creeks, waterfalls, ranges of hills and peaks. The Karnataka Coastal Region can be divided into two main geographical divisions, known as the Western Ghats and the plains. The coastal belt has an average width of 50 km to 80 km. It covers a distance of around 267 km from north to south.
River Systems of Karnataka:-
Karnataka has seven river systems and their tributaries flowing through the state. The river systems of Karnataka are:
- North Pennar
- South Pennar
- The West Flowing Rivers
Karnataka has 26 east flowing rivers and 10 west flowing rivers. The west flowing rivers of Karnataka flow to the Arabian Sea. These west-flowing rivers are responsible for providing 60% of the state’s inland water resources.
The geology of Karnataka lay widespread in 5 major eras, namely the Archean, Proterozoic, Mesozoic and the Ceonzoic. The geology of Karnataka is largely confined to the two oldest eras; the Archean and the Proterozic. The rest of the great periods from Cambrian to recent are hardly represented but for minor sediments of recent age exposed along the coastal margin to the West. A substantial part of North Karnataka is covered by Deccan trap, representing phenomenal outburst of volcanic activity at the dawn of the Cenozoic era. The state is exposed oldest rocks in Gorur area, Hassan district, Karnataka date back to about 3300 million years. The Precambrian craton of Karnataka is made up of western and eastern segments. The Precambrians of Karnataka have been divided into older Sargur supracrustals (about 3300 to 3000 million year old) and younger Dharwar supracrustals (about 3000 to 2600 million year old. The Dharwar supracrustals Supergroup has been further divided into older Bababudan Group (ca.3000 to 2700 million years) and younger Chitradurga Group (ca.2700 to 2500 million years). The schist belts of the Eastern craton, like Kolar, Hutti, Sandur etc., appear to be approximately equivalent to the Chitradurga Group.The Karnataka craton has been extensively intruded by granites and granitoids of the ca. age 2600 to 2500 million years. The eastern Karnataka abounds in these granites and granitoids. The northern part of Karnataka is made up of Kaladgi and Badami and Bhima Group of sediments, approximately of Proterozoic age. Further north the terrain is covered by extensive volcanic flows known as Deccan traps of Cretaceous -Tertiary age.KPSC Notes brings Prelims and Mains programs for KPSC Prelims and KPSC Mains Exam preparation. Various Programs initiated by KPSC Notes are as follows:-
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